JBiSE  Vol.3 No.12 , December 2010
Fabrication and characterization of cross-linked gelatin electro-spun nano-fibers
ABSTRACT
In this study, we developed a fast, simple and novel process to fabricate cross-linked electro-spun gelatin with limited amounts of glutaraldehyde (GA) using trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) as the solvent. Using SEM, the uncross-linked gelatin fibers were determined to have diameters between 50-300 nm, while the cross-linked gelatin electro-spun fibers had diameters between 100-500 nm. FT-IR revealed that the un-cross-linked and cross-linked electro-spun gelatin was fabricated successfully by electro-spinning using TFA as a solvent, which has not been reported until now. Stress-strain curves showed that the addition of small amounts of GA increased the strength of the gelatin by two fold and allowed for the creation of a water insoluble gelatin electro-spun membrane.

Cite this paper
nullNguyen, T. and Lee, B. (2010) Fabrication and characterization of cross-linked gelatin electro-spun nano-fibers. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 3, 1117-1124. doi: 10.4236/jbise.2010.312145.
References
[1]   Johnson, M.D. (2000) Human Biology: Concenpts and Current Issues. San Francisco, California.

[2]   Choi, Y.S., Hong, S.R., Lee, Y.M., et al. (1999). Study on gelatin-containing artificial skin: I. Preparation and characteristics of novel gelatin-alginate sponge. Biomaterials, 20, 409-417.

[3]   Akin, H. and Hasircl, N. (1995) Preparation and Characterization of Crosslinked Gelatin Microspheres. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 58, 95-100.

[4]   Li, X.-K., Cai, S.-X., Liu, B., et al. (2007) Characteristics of PLGA-gelatin complex as potential artificial nerve scaffold. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 57, 198-203.

[5]   W., Y.Z., W., Y.L., C., G.X., et al. (2000) Preparation and characterization of gelatin gel with a gradient structure. Polymer Internationa, 49, 1600-1603.

[6]   Chong, E.J., Phan, T.T., Lim, I.J., et al. (2007) Evaluation of electrospun PCL/gelatin nanofibrous scaffold for wound healing and layered dermal reconstitution. Acta Biomaterialia, 3, 321-330.

[7]   Yurong, L., Luke, M.G., Kennedy, J.E., et al. (2009) Thermal behavior and mechanical properties of physically crosslinked PVA/Gelatin hydrogels. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, doi: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2009.07.001.

[8]   Nagahama, H., Maeda, H., Kashiki, T., et al. (2009) Preparation and characterization of novel chitosan/gelatin membranes using chitosan hydrogel. Carbohydrate Polymers, 76, 255-260.

[9]   Li, M., Guo, Y., Wei, Y., et al. (2006) Electrospinning polyaniline-contained gelatin nanofibers for tissue engineering applications. Biomaterials, 27, 2705-2715.

[10]   Schiffman, J.D., and Schauer, C.L. (2007) One-Step Electrospinning of Cross-Linked Chitosan Fibers. Biomacromolecules, 8, 2665-2667.

[11]   Agarwal, S., Wendorff, J.H. and Greiner, A. (2008) Use of electrospinning technique for biomedical applications. Polymer, 49, 5603-5621.

[12]   You, Y.L., Lee, S.J., Min, B.M., et al. (2006) Effect of solution properties on nanofibrous structure of electrospun poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid). Journal of Applied Polymmer Science, 99, 1214-1221.

[13]   Mark, M., Naphtali, O.C., Soumen, M., et al. (2005). Saccharide–Peptide Hybrid Copolymers as Biomaterials. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 44, 6529- 6533.

[14]   Buttafoco, L., Kolkman, N.G., Engbers-Buijtenhuijs, P., et al. (2006) Electrospinning of collagen and elastin for tissue engineering applications, Biomaterials, 27, 724-734.

[15]   Pham, Q.P., Sharma, U. and Mikos, A.G. (2006) Electrospinning of polymeric nanofibers for tissue engineering applications: A review. Tissue Engenineering, 12, 1197-1211.

[16]   Duan, B., Yuan, X., Zhu, Y., et al. (2006) A nanofibrous composite membrane of PLGA–chitosan/PVA prepared by electrospinning. European Polymer Journal, 42, 2013-2022.

[17]   Kenawy, E.R., Bowlin, G.L., Mansfield, K., et al. (2002) Release of tetracycline hydrochloride from electrospun poly(ethylene-co-vinylacetate), poly(lactic acid), and a blend Journal of Controlled Release, 81, 57-64.

[18]   Shudong, W., Youzhu, Z., Hongwei, W. et al. (2009) Fabrication and Properties of the Electrospun Polylactide/Silk Fibroin-Gelatin Composite Tubular Scaffold. Biomacromolecules, 10, 2240-2244.

[19]   Huang, Z.-M., Zhang, Y.Z., Kotaki, M., et al. (2003) Composite Science Technology, 63, 2223-2253.

[20]   Zhang, Y.Z., Venugopal, J., Huang, Z.-M., et al. (2006) Crosslinking of the electrospun gelatin nanofibers. Polymer, 47, 2911-2917.

[21]   Song, J.-H., Kim. H.-E. and Kim H.-W. (2008) Production of electrospun gelatin nanofiber by water-based co-solvent approach. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 19, 95-102.

[22]   Chen, Z.G., Wang, P.W., Wei, B., et al. (2010) Electrospun collagen–chitosan nanofiber: A biomimetic extracellular matrix for endothelial cell and smooth muscle cell. Acta Biomaterialia, 6, 372-382

[23]   Bigi, A. and Cojazzi, G. (2001) Mechanical and thermal properties of gelatin films at different degrees of glutaraldehyde crosslinking. Biomaterials, 22, 763-768.

[24]   Gilberto, G., Junior, E.M., Marcanto? nio, R. A. C., et al. (1999) Biocompatibility studies of anionic collagen membranes with different degree of glutaraldehyde cross-linking. Biomaterials, 20, 27-34.

[25]   Kristin Sisson, C.Z., Mary C. Farach-Carson, D. Bruce Chase, John F. Rabolt, Evaluation of Cross-Linking Methods for Electrospun Gelatin on Cell Growth and Viability. Biomacromolecules, 2009. 10: p. doi: 10.1021/ bm900036s.

[26]   Nguyen, T.H. and Lee, B.-T. (2010) Electro-spinning of PLGA/PCL blends for tissue engineering and their biocompatibility. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 21, 1969-1978.

[27]   Min, B.-M., You,Y., Kim, J.-M., at el. (2004) Formation of nanostructured poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitin matrix and its cellular response to normal human keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Carbohydrate Polymers, 57, 285-292.

[28]   Martucci, J.F., Ruseckaite, R.A. and V′azquez A. (2006) Creep of glutaraldehyde-crosslinked gelatin films. Materials Science and Engineering A, 435-436, 681-686.

[29]   Talebian, A., Kordestani, S.S., Dadashian F. et al. (2007) World Applied Sciences Journal, 2, 575-581.

[30]   ASTM Standard. (1991) Standard test method for tensile properties of thin plastic shheting, in Am. Soc. West Conshohocken T.a. Materials, Editor. 194-202.

[31]   Denyer, S.P. (1991) Mechanisms of Action of Chemical Biocides: Their Study and Exploitation: Their Study and Exploitation. Wiley-Blackwell ed. 23-28.

 
 
Top