The frequent experience of anger while driving is
associated with great rates of aggressive and dangerous behaviors. The
experience of anger driving can have repercussions that extend beyond the
vehicle and can be harmful to the individual driver and other drivers that are
in the same road. Thus, the present research aims to compare the effectiveness
of Mindfulness Based Cognitive Group Therapy (MBCGT) with Cognitive-Behavior
Group Therapy (CBGT) on reducing anger and aggression while driving. The experimental
design was pretest, posttest and follow up with randomized assignment. The
sample of this study included 20 male taxi drivers who were selected through
accessible sampling and participated voluntarily in the research. Participants
were randomly divided into two experimental groups. The first experimental
group received MBCGT and CBGT was conducted in the second experimental group.
Both groups were tested three times (i.e., pretest, posttest, and one-month
follow-up). The study tools used were Driving Anger Scale (DAS) and Driving
Anger Expression questionnaire (DAX). Data were analyzed using SPSS 16 software
with covariance analysis. The results showed that MBCGT in comparison to CBGT
led to significant reduction in driving anger, aggressive expression of driving
anger and significant increase in adaptive/constructive expression of driving
anger. These findings have been discussed theoretically and their importance in
Cite this paper
Kazemeini, T. , Ghanbari-e-Hashem-Abadi, B. & Safarzadeh, A. (2013). Mindfulness Based Cognitive Group Therapy vs Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy as a Treatment for Driving Anger and Aggression in Iranian Taxi Drivers. Psychology, 4, 638-644. doi: 10.4236/psych.2013.48091.
 American Atomobile Association Foundation for Traffic Safty (1997). Aggressive driving: Three studies. Washington DC: Author.
 Ataee-e-Nakhaei, A. (2008). The effect of mindfulness-based group therapy with study skills training on test anxiety and trait anxiety. Postgraduate Dissertation, Mashhad: Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Unpublished.
 Berslin, F. C., Zack, M., & McMain, S. (2002). An information-processing analysis of mindfulness: Implications for prevention in treatment of substance abuse. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9, 275-299. doi:10.1093/clipsy.9.3.275
 Bishop, S. R. (2002). What do we really know about mindfulness-based stress reduction? Psychosomatic Medicine, 64, 71-83.
 Borders, A., Earleywine, M., & Jajodia. A. (2010). Could mindfulness anger, hostility, and aggression by decreasing rumination? Aggressive Behavior, 36, 28-44. doi:10.1002/ab.20327
 Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 822-848.
 Corey, G. (2009). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy. USA: Thomson Brooks/Cole Press.
 Deffenbacher, J. L., Filetti, L. B., Lynch, R. S., Dahlen, E. R., & Oeting, E. R. (2002a). Cognitive-bahavioral treatment of high anger drivers. Behavior Research and Therapy, 40, 895-910.
 Deffenbacher, J. L., Huff, M. E., Lynch, R. S., Oetting, E. R., & Salvatore, N. F. (2000). Characteristics and treatment of high anger drivers. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47, 5-17.
 Deffenbacher, J. L., Lynch, R. S., Deffenbacher, D. M., & Oetting, E. R. (2001). Further evidence of reliability and validity for the driving anger expression inventory. Psychological Reports, 89, 535-540.
 Deffenbacher, J. L., Lynch, R. S., Oetting, E. R., & Swaim, R. C. (2002b). The driving anger expression inventory: A measure of how people express their anger on the road. Behavior Research and Therapy, 40, 717-737. doi:10.1016/S0005-7967(01)00063-8
 Deffenbacher, J. L., Oetting, E. R., & Lynch, R. S. (1994). Development of a driving anger scale. Psychological Reports, 74, 83-91.
 Diebold, J. (2003). Mindfulness in the machine: A mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for the reduction of driving anger. Ph.D. Dissertation. New York: Hofstra University, Unpublished
 Ellison, P. A., Govern, J. M., Petri, H. M., & Figler, M. H. (1995). Anonymity and aggressive driving behavior: A field study. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 10, 265-272.
 Ellison-Potter, P., Bell, P., & Deffenbacher, J. L. (2001). The effects of trait driving anger, anonymity, and aggressive stimuli on aggressive driving behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31, 431-443.
 Free, M. L. (1999). Cognitive therapy in groups: Guide lines and resources for practice. New York: John Wiley Press.
 Galovski, T. E., Blanchard, E. B., & Veazey, C. (2002). Intermittent explosive disorder and other psychiatric comorbidity among courtreferred and self-referred aggressive disorders. Behavior Research and Therapy, 40, 641-651. doi:10.1016/S0005-7967(01)00030-4
 Galovski, T. E., Blanchard, E. B., Malta, L. S., & Freidenberg, B. M. (2003). The psychophysiology of aggressive drivers: Comparison to non-aggressive drivers and pr-to post-treatment change following a cognitive-behavioral treatment. Behavior Research and Therapy, 41, 1055-1067. doi:10.1016/S0005-7967(02)00242-5
 Ghasemzade, H. (2008). Cognition and affect (clinical and social aspects). Tehran: Farhangan Press.
 Hauber, A. R. (1980). The social psychology of driving behavior and traffic environment: Research on aggressive behavior in traffic. International Review of Applied Psychology, 29, 461-474.
 Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K. D., & Wilson, K. G. (1999). Acceptance and commitment theray: An experimental approach to behavior change. New York: The Guilford Press.
 Hennssy, D. A., & Wiesenthal, D. L. (1999). Traffic congestion, driver sress, and driver aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 25, 409-423.
 Heppner, L. W., kernis, M. H., Lakey, C. E., Campbell, W. K., Goldman, B. M., Davis, P. J., & Cascio, E. V. (2008). Mindfulness as a means of reducing aggressive behavior: Dispositional and situational evidence. Aggressive Behavior, 34, 486-496. doi:10.1002/ab.20258
 Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and illness. New York: Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Press.
 Malta, L. S., Blanchard, E. B., Freidenbreg, B. M., Galovski, T. E., Karl, A., & Holzapfel, S. R. (2001). Psychological reactivity of aggressive drivers: An exploratory study. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 26, 95-116. doi:10.1023/A:1011373105966
 Murray, C., & Lopez, A. (1997). Alternative projections of mortality and disability by cause 1990-2020: Global burden of disease study. Lancet, 349, 1498-1504. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(96)07492-2
 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (1999). Traffic safety facts 1999: Speeding. Washington DC: Author.
 Novaco, R. W., Stokols, D., & Milanesi, L. (1990). Objective and subjective dimensions of travel impedance as determinants of commuting stress. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18, 231-257.
 Parker, D., Lajunen, T., & Stardling, S. (1998). Attitudinal predictors of aggressive driving violation. Transportation Research Part F, 1, 11-24. doi:10.1016/S1369-8478(98)00002-3
 Parkinson, B. (2001). Anger on and off the road. British Journal of Psychology, 92, 507-526. doi:10.1348/000712601162310
 Peterson, L. G., & Pbert, L. (1992). Effectiveness of a meditation-based stress reduction program in the treatment of anxiety disorders. American Journal Psychiatry, 149, 936-943.
 Phares, E. J. (1992). Clinical psychology: Concepts, methods, & profession. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole Press.
 Pinto, D. (2001). Driving anger, articulated cognitive distortions, cognitive deficiencies and aggression. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. New York: Hofstra University.
 Polizzi, T. N. (2007). An examination of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for anger drivers. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, New York: Hofstra University.
 Rasmussen, C., Knapp, T. J., & Garner, L. (2000). Driving-induced stress in urban college students. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 90, 437-443. doi:10.2466/pms.2000.90.2.437
 Richards, T. L., Deffenbacher, J. L., Filetti, L. B., Lynch, R. S., & Kogan, L. R. (2001). Short- and long-term effects of intervention for driving anger reduction. Paper Presented at 109th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco, CA.
 Rimm, D. C., DeGroot, J. C., Boord, P., Heiman, J., & Dillow, P. V. (1971). Systematic desensitization of an anger response. Behavior Research and Therapy, 9, 273-280.
 Rothwell, N. (2006). The different faces of mindfulness. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 24, 79-86.
 Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M., & Teasdale, J. D. (2002). Mindfulnessbased cognitive for therapy depression. New York, NY: The Gilford Press.
 Shapiro, S. L., Schwartz, G. E., & Bonner, G. (1998). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction in medical and premedical students. Journal Behavioral Medicine, 21, 581-599.
 Teasdale, J. D. (1993). Emotion and two kinds of meaning: Cognitive theory and applied cognitive science. Behavior Research and Therapy, 4, 339-354. doi:10.1016/0005-7967(93)90092-9
 Teasdale, J. D. (1999). Metacognition, mindfulness and the modification of mood disorders. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 6, 146-155. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-0879(199905)6:2<146::AID-CPP195>3.0.CO;2-E
 Underwood, G., Chapman, P., Wright, S., & Crandall, D. (1999). Anger while driving. Transportation Research Part F, 2, 55-68.
 Vandervoort, D. J., Ragland, D. R., & Syme, S. L. (1996). Expressed and suppressed anger and health problems among transit workers. Current Psychology: Developmental, Learning, Personality, and Social, 15, 179-193. doi:10.1007/BF02686950
 Wright, S., Andrew, D., & Howells, K. (2009). Mindfulness and treatment of anger problems. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 14, 396-401. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2009.06.008