This study investigated how classroom goal structures
(mastery and performance goal structures) related to intrinsic motivation and
peer modeling focusing on teachers’ promoting interaction as a classroom level
mediator. Authors tested multilevel mediational models with a sample of 1212
Japanese elementary and junior high school students from 43 classrooms. Results
provided support for classroom level mediational process in mastery goal structures.
Specifically, mastery goal structures related to promoting interaction, and promoting
interactions related to both intrinsic motivation and peer modeling.
Limitations and future directions of the study were discussed.
Cite this paper
Ohtani, K. , Okada, R. , Ito, T. & Nakaya, M. (2013). A Multilevel Analysis of Classroom Goal Structures’ Effects on Intrinsic Motivation and Peer Modeling: Teachers’ Promoting Interaction as a Classroom Level Mediator. Psychology, 4, 629-637. doi: 10.4236/psych.2013.48090.
 Ames, C. (1992). Classroom: Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 261-271.
 Ames, C., & Ames, R. (1984). Systems of student and teacher motivation: Toward a qualitative definition. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 535-556. doi:10.1037/0022-06188.8.131.525
 Ames, C., & Archer, J. (1988). Achievement goals in the classroom: Students’ learning strategies and motivation processes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 260-267.
 Anderman, L. H., & Anderman, E. M. (1999). Social predictors of changes in students’ achievement goal orientation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 21-37. doi:10.1006/ceps.1998.0978
 Anderman, L. H., & Freeman, T. M. (2004).Students’ sense of belonging in school. In P. R. Pintrich, & M. L. Maehr (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement: Vol. 13. motivating students, improving schools: The legacy of carol midgley (pp. 27-63). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
 Bliese, P. D. (2000). Within-group agreement, non-independence, and reliability: Implications for data aggregation and analysis. In K. J. Klein, & S. W. Kozlowski (Eds.), Multilevel theory, research, and methods in organizations (pp. 349-381). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
 Brophy, J. (2004). Motivating students to learn (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
 Dweck, C. S., & Leggett, E. L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95, 256-273.
 Elliot, A. J. (2005). A conceptual history of the achievement goal construct. In A. J. Elliot, & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 52-72). New York: Guilford Press.
 Elliot, A. J., & Church, M. A. (1997). A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 218-232. doi:10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.206
 Elliot, A. J., & McGregor, H. A. (2001). A 2 × 2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 501-519. doi:10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.111
 Harackiewicz, J. M., Barron, K. E., Pintrich, P. R., Elliot, A. J., & Thrash, T. M. (2002). Revision of achievement goal theory: Necessary and illuminating. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 638-645. doi:10.1037/0022-0618.104.22.1688
 Hyde, J. S., & Durik, A. (2005). Gender, competence and motivation. In A. J. Elliot, & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 375-392). New York: Guilford Press.
 Kaplan, A., Gheen, M., & Midgley, C. (2002). Classroom goal structure and student disruptive behaviour. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 72, 191-211. doi:10.1348/000709902158847
 Kaplan, A., Middleton, M. J., Urdan, T., & Midgley, C. (2002). Achievement goals and goal structures. In C. Midgley (Ed.), Goals, goal structures, and patterns of adaptive learning (pp. 21-53). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
 Lepper, M. R., Corpus, J. H., & Iyengar, S. S. (2005). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientation in the classroom: Age differences and academic correlates. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 184-196. doi:10.1037/0022-0622.214.171.124
 Maehr, M. L., & Zusho, A. (2009). Achievement goal theory: The past, present, and future. In K. R. Wentzel, & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school (pp. 77-104). New York: Routledge.
 Meece, J. L., Anderman, E. M., & Anderman, L. H. (2006). Classroom goal structure, student motivation, and academic achievement. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 487-503.
 Meece, J. L., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Hoyle, R. H. (1988). Students’ goal orientations and cognitive engagement in classroom activities. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 514-523.
 Midgley, C. Maehr, M. L., Hruda, L. A., Anderman, E., Anderman, L., Gheen, M., Kaplan, A., Kumar, R., Middleton, M. J., Nelson, J., & Urdan, T. (2000). Manual for the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scale. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan.
 Midgley, C., Anderman, E., & Hicks, L. (1995). Differences between elementary and middle school teachers and students: A goal theory approach. Journal of Early Adolescence, 15, 90-113.
 Miki, K., & Yamauchi, H. (2005). Perceptions of classroom goal structures, personal achievement goal orientations, and learning strategies. Japanese Journal of Psychology, 76, 260-268.
 Murayama, K., & Elliot, A. J. (2009).The joint influence of personal achievement goals and classroom goal structures on achievementrelevant outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 432-447. doi:10.1037/a0014221
 Nicholls, J. G. (1984). Achievement motivation: Conception of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychological Review, 91, 328-346. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.91.3.328
 Okada, R., Nakaya, M., Ito, T., & Ohtani, K. (2010). Individual differences in peer-modeling. Poster Presented at the Japanese Association of Educational Psychology 52nd Annual Conference, Japan.
 Patrick, H. (2004). Re-examining classroom mastery goal structure. In P. R. Pintrich, & M. L. Maehr (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement: Vol. 13. Motivating students, improving schools: The legacy of carol midgley (pp. 233-263). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
 Patrick, H., Anderman, L. H., Ryan, A. M., Edelin, K., & Midgley, C. (2001). Teachers’ communication of goal orientations in four fifth-grade classrooms. The Elementary School Journal, 102, 35-58.
 Patrick, H., Kaplan, A., & Ryan, A. M. (2011). Positive classroom motivational environments: Convergence between mastery goal structure and classroom social climate. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103, 367-382. doi:10.1037/a0023311
 Patrick, H., Ryan, A. M., & Kaplan, A. (2007). Early adolescents’ perceptions of the classroom social environment, motivational beliefs, and engagement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 83-98.
 Pintrich, P. R., & De Groot, E. V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 33-40.
 Roeser, R. W., Midgley, C., & Urdan, T. C. (1996). Perceptions of the school psychological environment and early adolescents’ psychological and behavioral functioning in school: The mediating role of goals and belonging. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 408-432. doi:10.1037/0022-06126.96.36.1998
 Ryan, A. M. (2000). Peer groups as a context for the socialization of adolescents’ motivation, engagement, and achievement in school. Educational Psychologist, 35, 101-111.
 Ryan, A. M., & Patrick, H. (2001). The classroom social environment and changes in adolescents’ motivation and engagement during middle school. American Educational Research Journal, 38, 437-460.
 Ryan, A. M., Gheen, M. H., & Midgley, C. (1998). Why do some students avoid asking for help? An examination of the interplay among students’ academic efficacy, teachers’ social-emotional role, and the classroom goal structure. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 528-535. doi:10.1037/0022-06188.8.131.528
 Schunk, D. H. (1998). Teaching elementary students to self-regulate practice of mathematical skills with modeling. In D. H. Schunk, & B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Self-regulated learning, from teaching to selfreflective practice (pp. 137-159). New York: Guilford Press.
 Schunk, D. H., & Hanson, A. R. (1985). Peer models: Influence on children’s self-efficacy and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 313-322. doi:10.1037/0022-06184.108.40.2063
 Schunk, D. H., & Hanson, A. R. (1989). Self-modeling and children’s cognitive skill learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 155-163. doi:10.1037/0022-06220.127.116.11
 Tanaka, A., & Yamauchi, H. (2000). Causal models of achievement motive, goal orientation, intrinsic interest, and academic achievement in classroom. The Japanese Journal of Psychology, 71, 317-324.
 Turner, J. C., & Meyer, D. K. (2009). Understanding motivation in mathematics: What is happening in classrooms? In K. R. Wentzel, & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school (pp. 527-552). New York: Routledge.
 Turner, J. C., Meyer, D. K., Midgley, C., & Patrick, H. (2003). Teacher discourse and sixth graders’ reported affect and achievement behaveiors in two high-mastery/high-performance mathematics classrooms. The Elementary School Journal, 103, 357-382. doi:10.1086/499731
 Turner, J. C., Midgley, C., Meyer, D. K., Gheen, M., Anderman, E. M., & Kang, Y. (2002). The classroom environment and students’ reports of avoidance strategies in mathematics: A multimethod study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 88-106.
 Urdan, T., & Midgley, C. (2003). Changes in the perceived classroom goal structure and pattern of adaptive learning during early adolescence. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 28, 524-551.
 Urdan, T., & Schoenfelder, E. (2006). Classroom effects on student motivation: Goal structures, social relationships, and competence beliefs. Journal of School Psychology, 44, 331-349.
 Wentzel, K. R. (2005). Peer relationships, motivation, and academic performance at school. In A. J. Elliot, & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 279-296). New York: Guilford Press.
 Wolters, C. A. (2004). Advancing achievement goal theory: Using goal structures and goal orientations to predict students’ motivation, cognition, and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 236-250. doi:10.1037/0022-0618.104.22.168
 Yamauchi, H., & Tanaka, K. (1998). Relations of autonomy, self-referenced beliefs, and self-regulated learning among Japanese children. Psychological Reports, 82, 803-816. doi:10.2466/pr0.1922.214.171.1243
 Young, M. R. (2005). The motivational effects of the classroom environment in facilitating self-regulated learning. Journal of Marketing Education, 27, 25-40. doi:10.1177/0273475304273346
 Zhang, Z., Zyphur, M. J., & Preacher, K. J. (2009). Testing multilevel mediation using hierarchical linear models. Organizational Research Methods, 12, 695-719. doi:10.1177/1094428108327450