In this paper we present the nonlinear optical characterization of Au/Pd nanoparticles in order to obtain the nonlinear refractive indices using the Z-scan technique. The experiments were performed using a 514 nm laser beam Ar+, with 14 Hz of modulation frequency, as excitation source. By using a lens the excitation beam was focused to a small spot and the sample was moved across the focal region along the z-axis by a motorized translation stage. Seven samples with different concentration ratio of Au/Pd nanoparticles were prepared by simultaneous reduction of gold and palladium ions in presence of poly (N-vinyl-2-pirrolidone) (PVP) using ethanol as a reducing agent. In this work, we report the application of the Z-scan technique, to generate optical transmission of laser light as a function of the z position for solutions containing bimetallic nanoparticles of Au (core)/Pd (shell) with average sizes ranging from 3 to 5 nm. The magnitude of the obtained nonlinear refractive index was in the order of 10?8 cm2/W. Our results show that the nonlinear refractive index has a nonlinear behavior when the (Au/Pd) ratio was increased.
Cite this paper
Pérez, J. , Gutiérrez-Fuentes, R. , Ramírez, J. , Vidal, O. , Téllez-Sánchez, D. , Pacheco, Z. , Orea, A. and García, J. (2013) Nonlinear Coefficient Determination of Au/Pd Bimetallic Nanoparticles Using Z-Scan. Advances in Nanoparticles, 2, 223-228. doi: 10.4236/anp.2013.23031.
 H. Kumarakuru, D. Cherns, M. G. Montes de Oca and D. J. Fermin, “TEM Studies of Stress Relaxation in Catalytic Au-Pd Core-Shell Nanoparticles,” Journal of Physics: Con ference Series, Vol. 371, 2012, Article ID: 012025.
 C. Hsu, C. Huang, Y. Hao and F. Liu, “Au/Pd Core-Shell Nanoparticles for Enhanced Electrocatalytic Activity and Durability,” Electrochemistry Communication, Vol. 23, No. 1, 2012, pp. 133-136.
 M. A. Montero, M. R. Gennero de Chialvo and A. C. Chialvo, “Electrocatalytic Activity of Core-Shell Au@Pt Nanoparticles for the Hydrogen Oxidation Reaction,” In ternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 36, No. 6, 2011, pp. 3811-3816.
 F. Liu, D. Wechsler and P. Zhang, “Alloy-Structure-De pendent Electronic Behavior and Surface Properties of Au-Pd Nanoparticles,” Chemical Physics Letters, Vol. 461, No. 4-6, 2008, pp. 254-259.
 Y. Dirix, C. Bastiaansen, W. Caseri and P. Smith, “Oriented Pearl-Necklace Arrays of Metallic Nanoparticles in Polymers: A New Route toward Polarization-Dependent Color Filters,” Advanced Materials, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1999, pp. 223-227.
 L. L. Beecroft and C. K. Ober, “Nanocomposite Materials for Optical Applications,” Chemical Materials, Vol. 9, No. 6, 1997, pp. 1302-1317. doi:10.1021/cm960441a
 Y. Wang, “Nonlinear Optical Properties of Nanometer Sized Semiconductor Clusters,” Accounts of Chemical Research, Vol. 24, No. 5, 1991, pp. 133-139.
 R. Elghanian, J. J. Storhoff, R. C. Mucic, R. L. Letsinger and C. A. Mirkin, “Selective Colorimetric Detection of Po lynucleotides Based on the Distance-Dependent Optical Properties of Gold Nanoparticles,” Sciences, Vol. 227, No. 5329,1997, pp. 1078-1081.
 C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West and R. Drezek, “Nanoshell-Enabled Photonics-Based Imaging and Therapy of Cancer,” Technology in Cancer Research and Treatment, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2004, pp. 33-40.
 M. Quinten, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn and F. R. Aussenegg, “Electromagnetic Energy Transport via Linear Chains of Silver Nanoparticles,” Optics Letters, Vol. 23. No. 17, 1998, pp. 1331-1333. doi:10.1364/OL.23.001331
 M. L. Brongersma, J. W. Hartman and H. A. Atwater; “Electromagnetic Energy Transfer and Switching in Na noparticle Chain Arrays below the Diffraction Limit,” Physical Review B, Vol. 62, No. 24, 2000, pp. R16356 R16359. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.62.R16356
 H. Nadjari and Z. A. Azad, “Determining the Nonlinear Coefficient of Gold and Silver Nano-Colloids Using SPM and CW Z-Scan,” Optics and Laser Technology, Vol. 44, No. 5, 2012, pp. 1629-1632.
 W. Husinsky, A. Ajami, P. Nekvindova, B. Svecova, J. Pesicka and M. Janecek, “Z-Scan Study of Nonlinear Absorption of Gold Nano-Particles Prepared by Ion Implantation in Various Types of Silicate Glasses,” Optics Communications, Vol. 285, No. 10, 2012, pp. 2729-2733.
 L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas and J. L. West, “Na noshell-Mediated Near-Infrared Thermal Therapy of Tu mors under Magnetic Resonance Guidance,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 100, No. 23, 2003, pp. 13549-13554.
 E. Shahriari, W. M. M. Yunus and E. Saion, “Effect of Particle Size on Nonlinear Refractive Index of Au Nano particle in PVA Solution,” Brazilian Journal of Physics, Vol. 40, No. 2, 2010, pp. 256-260.
 A. N. Dhinaa and K. Palanisamy, “Optical Nonlinearity in Measurement of Urea and Uric Acid in Blood,” Natural Science, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2010, pp. 106-111.
 S. Guo, L. Xu, H. Wang, X. You and N. Ming, “Deter mination of Optical Nonlinearities in Cu (mpo) 2 by Z Scan Technique,” Optical and Quantum Electronics, Vol. 35, No. 7, 2003, pp. 693-703.
 E. Shahriari, W. Mahmood Mat Yunus, K. Naghavi and Z. A. Talib, “Investigating of Nonlinear Refractive index Ag Nano-Fluid Based on Variation Particles Size,” Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, Vol. 1, No. 3, 2009, pp. 455-458.
 N. Toshima, M. Harada, Y. Yamazaki and K. Asakura, “Catalytic Activity and Structural Analysis of Polymer Protected Gold-Palladium Bimetallic Clusters Prepared by the Simultaneous Reduction of Hydrogen Tetrachlo roaurate and Palladium Dichloride,” Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 96, No. 24, 1992, pp. 9927-9933.
 Y. Wang and N. Toshima, “Preparation of Pd-Pt Bimetallic Colloids with Controllable Core/Shell Structures,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol. 101, No. 27, 1997, pp. 5301-5306. doi:10.1021/jp9704224
 M. Harada, K. Asakura and N. Toshima, “Catalytic Activity and Structural Analysis of Polymer-Protected Gold/Palladium Bimetallic Clusters Prepared by the Successive Reduction of Hydrogen Tetrachloroaurate(III) and Palladium Dichloride,” Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 97, No. 19,1993, pp. 5103-5114.
 J. F. Sánchez-Ramírez, J. L. Jiménez Pérez, A. Cruz Orea, R. Gutiérrez Fuentes, A. Bautista-Hernández and U. Pal, “Thermal Diffusivity of Nanofluids Containing Au/Pd Bi metallic Nanoparticles of Different Compositions,” Jour nal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2006, pp. 1-6. doi:10.1166/jnn.2006.124
 M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said and E. W. Van Stryland, “High-Sensitivity, Single-Beam n2 Measurements,” Optics Letters, Vol. 14, No. 17, 1989, pp. 955-957.
 M. Sheik Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Huei Wei, D. J. Hagan and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurement of Optical Nonlinearities Using a Single Beam,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 26, No. 4, 1990, pp. 760-769. doi:10.1109/3.53394
 E. Shabriari and W. M. M. Yunus, “Single Beam Z-Scan Measurements of Nonlinear Refraction and Nonlinear Absorption Coefficients in Silver Nano-Fluid,” American Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2010, pp. 98 101. doi:10.3844/ajeassp.2010.98.101
 E. Shahriari, W. Mahmood Mat Yunus, K. Naghavi and Z. A. Talib, “Effect of Concentration and Particle Size on Nonlinearity of Au Nano-Fluid Prepared by γ (60Co) Radiation,” Optics Communications, Vol. 283, No. 9, 2010, pp. 1929-1932. doi:10.1016/j.optcom.2010.01.005