Phytoextraction has been introduced as a new technology to clean up soils contaminated with heavy metals as the use of conventional methods to clean up the soil is very expensive and destructive to the ecosystem. However, using plants to clean up contaminated soils takes a considerable period before the contaminants are removed from the soil by the plants. This has necessitated the use of amendments to enhance phytoextraction in order to shorten the period of contaminants removal by plants. In view of this, a pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of various aminopolycarboxylic acids (EDTA, EDDS, NTA dry and NTA liquid) and two commercial fertilizers which are Hortrilon? and Fetrilon? on their ability to solubilize Cd and Zn in contaminated soils. It was observed that the inducing effect of EDTA on the solubility of Cd and Zn persisted throughout the experimental period. Initially, EDDS enhanced the solubility Cd and Zn, however, its effect dissipated with time. The application of both NTA dry (powder) and NTA liquid had a significant effect on the solubility of Zn as a result of the formation of Zn-NTA soluble complexes. Hortrilon? and Fetrilon? solubilized significant concentrations of both Cd and Zn with Hortrilon? having the greatest inducing effect on the solubility of Cd and Zn.
Cite this paper
E. Amoakwah, J. Ampofo-Asiama, S. Slycken and D. Essumang, "A Comparison of the Solubilizing Potential of Some Aminopolycarboxylic Acids, Hortrilon® and Fetrilon® for Use in Phytoextraction," Open Journal of Soil Science, Vol. 3 No. 4, 2013, pp. 182-190. doi: 10.4236/ojss.2013.34021.
 R. A. Wuana, F. E. Okieimen and J. A. Imborvungu, “Removal of Heavy Metals from a Contaminated Soil Using Organic Chelating Acids,” International Journal of Environment Science and Technology, Vol. 7, No. 3, 2010, pp. 485-496.
 M. Ghosh and S. P. Singh, “A Review on Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals and Utilization of Its Byproducts,” Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2005, pp. 1-18.
 N. von Wiren, H. Marschner and V. Romheld, “Roots of Iron-Efficient Maize Also Absorb Phytosiderophore-Chelated Zinc,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 111, No. 4, 1996, pp. 1119-1125.
 D. E. Crowley, Y. C. Wang, C. P. P. Reid and P. J. Szanislo, “Mechanism of Iron Acquisition from Siderophores by Microorganism and Plants,” Plant and Soil, Vol. 130, No. 1-2, 1991, pp. 179-198. doi:10.1007/BF00011873
 M. N. V. Prasad and H. M. O. Freitas, “Metal Hyperaccumulation in Plants—Biodiversity Prospecting for Phytoremediation Technology,” Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2003, p. 3.
 J. W. Huang, J. Chen, W. R. Berti and S. D. Cunningham, Phytoremediation of Lead-Contaminated Soils: Role of Synthetic Chelates in Lead Phytoextraction,” Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 31, No. 3, 1997, pp. 800-805. doi:10.1021/es9604828
 R. R. Brooks, “Plants That Hyperaccumulate Heavy Metals,” CAB International, New York, 1998.
 T. Egli, “Biodegradation of Metal-Complexing Aminopolycarboxylic Acids,” Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, Vol. 92, No. 2, 2001, pp. 89-97.
 S. D. Cunningham and D. W. Ow, “Promises and Prospects of Phytoremediation,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 110, No. 3, 1996, pp. 715-719.
 V. Sykora, P. Pitter, I. Bittnerova and T. Lederer, “Biodegradability of Ethylenediamine-Based Complexing Agents,” Water Researcher, Vol. 35, No. 8, 2001, pp. 2010-2016.
 D. V. Greman, S. Velikonja-Bolta and D. Lestan, “Ethylenediaminedissucinate as a New Chelate for Environmentally Safe Enhanced Phytoextraction,” Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol. 32, No. 2, 2003, pp. 500-506.
 L. H. Wu, Y. M. Luo, X. R. Xing and P. Christie, “EDTAEnhanced Phytoremediation of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil with Indian Mustard and Associated Potential Leaching Risk,” Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment, Vol. 102, No. 3, 2004, pp. 307-318.
 D. Lestan and H. Greman, “Chelate Enhanced Pb Phytoextraction in Plant Uptake, Leaching and Toxicity,” 17th WCSS World Congress of Soil Science, Bangkok, 14-21 August 2002, Symposium 42, Paper 1701.
 S. Van Slycken, E. Meers, L. Meiresonne, N. Witters, K. Adriaensen, A. Peene, W. Dejonghe, T. Thewys, J. Vangronsveld and F. M. G. Tack, “The Use of Bio-Energy Crops for Phytoremediation of Metal Enriched Soils in the Campine Region,” Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences, Vol. 73, No. 1, 2008, pp. 19-22.
 A. Walkley and I. A. Black, “An Examination of the Method for Determining Soil Oganic Matter and Proposed Modification of the Chromic Acid Titration Method,” Soil Science, Vol. 37, No. 1, 1934, pp. 29-28.
 L. P. Reeuwijk, “Procedures for Soil Analysis,” 6th Edition, International Soil and Reference Information Centre, Food and Agriculture Organisation, Wageningen, 2002.
 H. Y. Lai and Z. S. Chen, “Effects of EDTA on Solubility of Cadmium, Zinc and Lead and Their Uptake by Rainbow Pink and Vertivers Grass,” Chemosphere, Vol. 55, No. 3, 2004, pp. 421-430.
 C. Luo, Z. Shem and X. Li, “Enhanced Phytoextraction of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd with EDTA and EDDS,” Chemosphere, Vol. 59, No. 1, 2004, pp. 1-11.
 H. Chen and T. Cutright, “EDTA and HEDTA Effects on Cd, Cr and Ni Uptake by Helianthus annus,” Chemosphere, Vol. 45, No. 1, 2001, pp. 21-28.
 E. Lombi, F. J. Zhao, S. J. Dunham and S. P. McGrath, “Phytoremediation of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soils: Natural Hyper Accumulation versus Chemically Enhanced Phytoextraction,” Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol. 30, No. 6, 2001, pp. 1919-1926.
 E. Meers, M. Hopgood, E. Lesage, F. M. G. Tack and M. G. Verloo, “Enhanced Phytoextraction: In Search of EDTA Alternatives,” International Journal of Phytoremediation, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2004, pp. 95-109.
 A. T. Ruley, N. C. Sharna, S. V Sahi, S. R. Singh and K. S. Sajuran, “Effects of Lead and Chelators on Growth, Photosynthetic Activity and Pb Uptake in Sesbania drummondii Grown in Soil,” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 144, No. 1, 2006, pp. 11-18.
 K. Wenger, A. Kayser, S. K. Gupta, G. Furvts and R. Schulin, “Comparison of NTA and Elemental Sulphur as Potential Soil Amendments in Phytoremediation,” Soil and Sediment Contamination, Vol. 11, No. 5, 2002, pp. 655-672. doi:10.1080/20025891107023
 L. H. Wu, Y. H. Luo, P. Christie and M. H. Wong, “Effects of EDTA and Low Molecular Weight Organic Acids on Soil Solution Properties of a Heavy Metal Polluted Soil,” Chemosphere, Vol. 50, No. 6, 2003, pp. 819-822.
 H. Y. Lai and Z. S. Chen, “The EDTA Effect on Phytoextraction of Single and Combined Metals-Contaminated Soils Using Rainbow Pink (Dianthus chinensis),” Chemosphere, Vol. 60, No. 8, 2005, pp. 1062-1071.