AiM  Vol.3 No.4 , August 2013
In Vitro Screening and Selection of Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Spontaneously Fermenting Kunu-Zaki
ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted to determine the pro-biotic properties in vitro of the lactic acid bacteria isolated from spontaneously fermenting kunu-zaki. Kunu-zaki was processed using composite, non composite, germinated and ungerminated Digitaria exilis (Fonio), Sorghum bicolor (Sorghum) and Pennisetum americanum (Millet) cereals. A total of 150 LAB isolates were obtained from all the fermenting slurries. These 150 LAB isolates were screened for their ability to grow at pH 3.0, resistance against bile salt and ability to inhibit reference test pathogens. Out of these 150 LAB isolates; 21 exhibited good probiotic properties. All the 21 isolates were further identified to specie and subspecies level using standard API50CHL system with all 21 showing good survival (P < 0.05) in a pH 3.0 buffered medium and subsequent resistance to 0.3% bile. The LAB isolates which survived these conditions consisted of 18 Lactobacillus species, 2 Pediococcus species and 1 Lactococcus specie. These LAB species were further examined for antimicrobial activity against the growth of reference pathogens Staphylococcus aureus 25923, Escherichia coli 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 27853 and Enterococcus faecalis 29212. All 21 LAB species exhibited good inhibition of all test reference pathogens except Lactobacillus fructivorans, Lactococcus lactis sp lactis and L. fermentum which however, showed no zone of inhibition against the growth of E. faecalis. Kunu-zaki made from composite un-germinated Sorghum bicolor (Sorghum) and Pennisetum americanum (Millet) cereal grains contained the highest percentage (52%) of LAB species which showed good probiotic criteria in vitro. Non composite ungerminated cereals accounted for 33% of the total probiotic LAB isolates whilst the germinated non composite and composite cereals recorded the lowest percentage (10%) and (5%) of probiotic LAB respectively. The results of this research study showed that the LAB species isolated from wild fermentation of kunu-zaki beverage fulfilled the criteria for in vitro screening of probiotic characteristics. These LAB species possed potential for further use as probiotic in human preparations and suggested the use of kunu-zaki made from ungerminated composite sorghum and millet grains as a natural probiotic drink.


Cite this paper
S. Oluwajoba, F. Akinyosoye and V. Oyetayo, "In Vitro Screening and Selection of Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Spontaneously Fermenting Kunu-Zaki," Advances in Microbiology, Vol. 3 No. 4, 2013, pp. 309-316. doi: 10.4236/aim.2013.34044.
References
[1]   T. R. Klaenhammer, “Probiotic Bacteria: Today and Tomorrow,” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 130, Suppl. 2S, 2000, pp. 415S-416S.

[2]   T. Gaffa, I. A. Jideani and T. Nkama, “Traditional Production, Consumption and Storage of Kunu—A Non-Alcoholic Cereal Beverage,” Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, Vol. 57, No. 1, 2002, pp. 73-81. doi:10.1023/A:1013129307086

[3]   J. A. Jideani and J. O. Akingbala, “Some Physiochemical Properties of Acha (Digitaria exilis Stapf) and Iburua (Digitaria iburua Stapf) Grains,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 63, No. 3, 1993, pp. 369-371. doi:10.1002/jsfa.2740630317

[4]   J. A. Ayo, I. Nkama, U. S. Haruna, Y. Bitrus and F. Onajaife, “Effect of Dough Improvers on the Physical and Sensory Quality of Acha (Digitaria exilis) Flour Bread,” Nigerian Food Journal, Vol. 26, No. 1, 2008, pp. 102-110.

[5]   J. A. Awan, and S. U. Rahman, “Microbiology Manual,” Unitech Communications, Faisalabad, 2005, pp. 49-51.

[6]   W. F. Harrigan and M. E. McCance, “Methods in Food and Dairy Microbiology,” Academic Press, London, 1976.

[7]   J. Prasad, H. Gill, J. Smart and P. K. Gopal, “Selection and Characterization of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium Strains for Use as Probiotic,” International Dairy Journal, Vol. 8, No. 12, 1998, pp. 993-1002. doi:10.1016/S0958-6946(99)00024-2

[8]   B. J. B. Wood and W. H. Holzapfel, “The Genera of Lactic Acid Bacteria in the Lactic acid Bacteria,” In: B. J. B. Wood and W. H. Holzapfel Eds., The Genera of Lactic Acid Bacteria Blackie, Academic and Professional, London, 1995, p. 398. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-5817-0

[9]   K. H. Steinkraus, “Fermentations in World Food Processing,” Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Technology, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2002, pp. 23-32. doi:10.1111/j.1541-4337.2002.tb00004.x

[10]   V. Lei and M. Jacobsen, “Microbiological Characterization and Probiotic Potential of Koko and Koko Sour Water African Spontaneously Fermented Millet Porridge and Drink,” Journal of Applied Microbiology, Vol. 96, No. 2, 2004, pp. 384-397. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2672.2004.02162.x

[11]   C. M. Kalui, J. M. Mathara and P. M. Kutima, “Probiotic Potential of Spontaneously Fermented Cereal Based Foods—A Review,” African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 9, No. 17, 2010, pp. 2490-2498.

[12]   A. C. Quwehand, P. V. Kirjavainen, C. Shortt and S. Salminen, “Probiotics: Mechanisms and Established Effects,” International Dairy Journal, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1999, pp. 43-52. doi:10.1016/S0958-6946(99)00043-6

[13]   I. Cakir, “Determination of Some Probiotic Properties on Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria,” PhD Thesis, Ankara University, Ankara, 2003.

[14]   P. R. Marteau, M. Minekus, R. Havenaar, and J. H. J. Huis Int’l Veld, “Survival of Lactic Acid Bacteria in a Dynamic Model of the Stomach and Small Intestine. Validations and the Effect of Bile,” Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 80, No. 6, 1997, pp. 1031-1037. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(97)76027-2

[15]   W. P. Charteris, P. M. Kelly, L. Morelli and J. K. Collins, “Selective Detection, Enumeration and Identification of Potentially Probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium Species in Mixed Bacterial Populations,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 35, No. 1, 1997, pp. 1-27. doi:10.1016/S0168-1605(96)01222-6

[16]   T. R. Klaenhammer and M. J. Kullen, “Selection and design probiotic,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 50, No. 1, 1999, pp. 45-57. doi:10.1016/S0168-1605(99)00076-8

[17]   P. A. Maragkoudakis, G. Zoumpopoulou, C. Miaris, G. Kalantzopoulos, B. Pot and E. Tsakalidou, “Probiotic potential of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Dairy Products,” International Dairy Journal, Vol. 16, No. 3, 2005, pp. 189-199. doi:10.1016/j.idairyj.2005.02.009

[18]   M. Strus, K. Pakosz, H. Gosciniak, A. Przondo-Mordarska, E. Rozynek, H. Pituch, F. Meisel-Mikolajczyk and P. B. Heczko, “Antagonistic Activity of Lactobacillus Strains against Anaerobic Gastrointestinal Tract Pathogens (H. pylori, C. coli, C. jejuni, C. difficile),” Medycyna Doswiadczalna i Mikrobiologia, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2001, pp 133-142.

[19]   A. C. Quwehand and S. Vesterlund, “Antimicrobial Components from Lactic Acid Bacteria. Lactic Acid Bacteria Microbiological and Functional Aspects,” Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 2004.

[20]   P. Saman, P. Fucinos, J. A. Vázquez and S. S. Pandiella, “Fermentability of Brown Rice and Rice Bran for Growth of Human Lactobacillus Plantarum NCIMB 8826,” Food Technology & Biotechnology, Vol. 49, No. 1, 2011, p. 128.

[21]   S. L. Wakil and A. A. Onilude, 2011 “Time Related Total Lactic Acid Bacteria Population Diversity and Dominance in Cowpea-Fortified Fermented Cereal-Weaning Food,” African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 10, No. 6, 2011, pp. 887-895.

 
 
Top