The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strength and Adhesive Remnant Index of four different veneering ceramic materials to ceramic brackets. Additionallly, a further aim of this study was to overcome the etching using hydrofluoric acid which is noxious and could seriously damage the corneas of the eyes. Two surface conditioning methods of four ceramic materials before bonding brackets were examined: in group 1 an air particle abrasion with 25 μm aluminium trioxide (4 seconds at a pressure of 2.5 bars) and subsequently a silane coupling agent (Espe Sil, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, USA) was applicated on one side of each ceramic specimen (10 per group). In group 2 one side of each sample (20 per group) was etched with 37.0 per cent orthophosphoric acid for two minutes and was followed by a silane application (Espe Sil, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, USA). After this procedure the self-ligating ceramic brackets Clarity SL (3M Unitek, Monrovia, USA) brackets were bonded to the ceramic blocks and a thermocycling process started (5°C - 55°C, 6000 cycles). Then, shear bond strength and Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) were measured. To determine statistical differences Oneway-ANOVA and Tukey Post-hoc test were performed. Hydrofluoric acid seems not to be justifiable anymore for preparing the surface of dental ceramic restorations before bracket bonding. Sandblasting with 25 μm aluminium trioxide and the use of orthophosphoric acid (37.0 per cent) seem to prepare the surface of ceramic restoration sufficiently before ceramic bracket bonding. The found level of shear bond strength values seems to be sufficient for bonding ceramic brackets to ceramic restorations.
Cite this paper
A. Faltermeier, C. Reicheneder, P. Götzfried and P. Proff, "Bonding Orthodontic Ceramic Brackets to Ceramic Restorations: Evaluation of Different Surface Conditioning Methods," Materials Sciences and Applications, Vol. 4 No. 7, 2013, pp. 10-14. doi: 10.4236/msa.2013.47A2002.
 M. G. Buonocore, “Retrospectives on Bonding,” Dental Clinics of North America, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1981, pp. 241-255.
 A. Faltermeier, P. Roemer, C. Reicheneder, P. Proff and T. Klinke, “The Influence of Ceramic Restorations before metal Bracket Bonding,” Materials Sciences and Applications, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2012, pp. 1-5.
 M. G. Buonocore, “A Simple Method of Increasing the Adhesion of Acrylic Filling Materials to Enamel Surfaces,” Journal of Dental Research, Vol. 34, No. 6, 1955, pp. 849-853. doi:10.1177/00220345550340060801
 P. Schmage, I. Nergiz, W. Herrmann and M. Ozcan, “Infulence of Various Surface-Conditioning Methods on the Bond Strength of Metal Brackets to Ceramic Surfaces,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Vol. 123, No. 5, 2003, pp. 540-546.
 S. Karan, T. Büyükyilmaz and M. S. Toroglu, “Orthodontic Bonding to Several Ceramic Surfaces: Are There Acceptable Alternatives to Conventional Methods,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Vol. 132, No. 2, 2007, pp. 144.e7-144.e14.
 G. Trakyali, O. Malkondu, E. Kazazoglu and T. Arun, “Effects of Different Silanes and Acid Concentrations on Bond Strength to Porcelain Surfaces,” European Journal of Orthodontics, Vol. 31, No. 4, 2009, pp. 402-406.
 J. R. Calamia, “Etched Porcelain Facial Veneers: A New Treatment Modality Based on Scientific and Clinical Evidence,” New York Journal of Dentistry, Vol. 53, No. 6, 1983, pp. 225-230.
 T. Hayakawa, K. Horie, M. Aida, H. Kanaya, T. Kobayashi and Y. Murata, “The Influence of Surface Conditions and Silane Agents on the Bond of Resin to Dental Porcelain,” Dental Materials, Vol. 8, No. 4, 1992, pp. 238-240. doi:10.1016/0109-5641(92)90092-Q
 M. Ozcan, P. K. Vallittu, T. Peltomaki, M. C. Huysmans and W. Kalk, “Bonding Polycarbonate Brackets to Ceramic: Effects of Substrate Treatment on Bond Strength,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Vol. 126, No. 2, 2004, pp. 220-227.
 T. Türk, D. Sarac, Y. Sarac and S. Elekdag-Türk, “Effects of Surface Conditioning on Bond Strength of Metal Brackets to All-Ceramic Surfaces,” European Journal of Orthodontics, Vol. 28, No. 5, 2006, pp. 450-456.
 M. Rosentritt, T. Plein, C Kolbeck, M. Behr and G. Handel, “In Vitro Force and Marginal Adaption of Ceramic Crowns Fixed on Natural Artificial Teeth,” International Journal of Prosthodontics, Vol. 13, No. 5, 2000, pp. 387-391.
 B. M. Bourke and W. P. Rock, “Factors Affecting the Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets to Porcelain,” British Journal of Orthodontics, Vol. 26, No. 4, 1999, pp. 285-290. doi:10.1093/ortho/26.4.285
 J. Daub, D. W. Berzins, B. J. Linn and T. G. Bradley, “Bond Strength of Direct and Indirect Bonded Brackets after Thermocycling,” Angle Orthodontist, Vol. 76, No. 2, 2006, pp. 295-300.
 I. Gillis and M. Redlich, “The Effect of Different Porcelain Conditioning Techniques on Shear Bond Strength of Stainless Steel Brackets,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Vol. 114, No. 4, 1998, pp. 387-392. doi:10.1016/S0889-5406(98)70183-0