This paper reports an approach to estimate the sludge density in a physicochemical treatment of municipal wastewater, experiments considered 4 coagulants (aluminum sulfate SAl, iron sulfate SFe, aluminum polychloride PAX, iron polychloride PIX), and 2 flocculant products (cationic CP and anionic AP polymers). Experimental approach is based on running a set of jar tests at different coagulant concentrations. After the stirring and resting times took place, pH and conductivity were registered finding that SAl and SFe either with or without polymers are the coagulants producing the higher pH drop. Conductivity measures also establish two kind of data since higher conductivity (about 2000 ) was observed for SAl, and PIX, PIX + CP, PIX + AP; otherwise a conductivity about 1300 was observed for SAl + PC, SFe and PAX alone and with CP or AP. Settleable solids (SST) determined with an Imhoff cone were similar for sulfates and polychlorides, but dry sludge (DS) clearly set up two groups the one with higher sludge content corresponds to sulfates group. The quotient of DS divided by the SST provided an estimation of the apparent sludge density, in this way it was observed that higher densities were obtained for sludge from sulfates at lower coagulant concentrations; also sludge from SFe was heavier than the one from SAl. Otherwise, polychlorides produced a lighter sludge in respect to the one obtained with sulfates, and between them the PIX coagulant provided a heavier sludge than the PAX coagulant.
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 D. Kalderis, M. Aivalioti and E. Gidarakos, “Options for Sustainable Sewage Sludge Management in Small Wastewater Treatment Plant on Islands: The Case of Crete,” Desalination, Vol. 260, No. 1-3, 2010, pp. 211-217. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2010.04.030