CE  Vol.4 No.7 , July 2013
Software for Annotating Videos—A Resource to Facilitate Active Learning in the Digital Age
ABSTRACT

In many areas of study—especially health professions, visual demonstration of concepts, processes and procedures form an important strategy for teaching and learning. Video recordings can be invaluable in capturing visual components. Annotations add another all-important dimension to the learning value of the video. Our Annotated Video Software is an innovative e-learning tool in support of experiential and self-directed learning. Annotations are independent of the video and the separation of annotation and video provides a robust learning environment that supports content. The tool is user-friendly and instructors can add annotations, without the need for intervention by programmers. Annotations can consist of notes of explanation, complementary videos, links to additional information and questions to engage critical thinking. Students’ answers to questions may also be collected and collated. Upon submission of answers feedback can be displayed, thus transforming evaluation into an immediate learning opportunity. We have already created educational resources for health professionals. Next steps include dissemination of the software to educators, provision of software access by mobile devices and better strategies to incorporate the annotated videos into existing learning management systems.


Cite this paper
Premkumar, K. , Cowie, N. , Coupal, C. & Boechler, K. (2013). Software for Annotating Videos—A Resource to Facilitate Active Learning in the Digital Age. Creative Education, 4, 465-469. doi: 10.4236/ce.2013.47067.
References
[1]   Alroy, G., & Ber, R. (1982). Doctor-patient relationship and the medi cal student: The use of trigger films. Journal of Medical Education, 57, 334-336.

[2]   Barbarav, E. (2008). Students’ use of video clip technology in clinical education. Top Lang Disorders, 28, 286-298. doi:10.1097/01.TLD.0000333602.76209.e7

[3]   Baud, D., & Pearson, M. (1979). The trigger film: A stimulus for affec tive learning. Programmed Learning Education Technology, 16, 52 56.

[4]   Bétrancourt, M., & Tversky, B. (2000). Effect of computer animation on users’ performance: A review. Le Travail Humain: A Bilingual and Multi-Disciplinary Journal in Human Factors, 63, 311-329.

[5]   Chu, L. F., Young, C., Zamora, A., Kurup, V., & Macario, A. (2010). Anesthesia 2.0: Internet-based information resources and Web 2.0 applications in anesthesia education. Current Opinion in Anaesthesi ology, 23, 218-227. doi:10.1097/ACO.0b013e328337339c

[6]   Clark, J., & Paivio, A. (1989). Observational and theoretical terms in psychology: A cognitive perspective on scientific language. Ameri can Psychologist, 44, 500-512. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.44.3.500

[7]   Cook, D. A., Erwin, P. J., & Triola, M. M. (2010). Computerized vir tual patients in health professions education: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Academic Medicine, 85, 1589-1602. doi:10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181edfe13

[8]   Cowie, N., Premkumar, K., Bowen, A., Kuling, S., Kawchuk, J., Roo ney, M., Morris, G., Burbridge, M., Martel, J., Sivertson, J., Camp bell, D., Coupal, C., & Boechler, K. (2012) Teamwork and commu nication. Acute Care: A Teaching Resource for Health Practitioners, MedEdPORTAL. www.mededportal.org/publication/9109

[9]   Daetwyler, C. J., Cohen, D. G., Gracely, E., & Novack, D. H. (2010). Learning to enhance physician patient communication: A pilot test of “doc.com” and “WebEncounter” in teaching bad news delivery. Me dical Teacher, 32, 381-390. doi:10.3109/0142159X.2010.495759

[10]   Furnham, A., & Gunter, B. (1985). Sex, presentation mode and memory for violent and non-violent news. Learning, Media and Technology, 11, 99-105. doi:10.1080/0260741850110203

[11]   Furnham, A., Benson, I., & Gunter, B. (1987). Memory for television commercials as a function of the channel of communication. Social Behaviour, 2, 105e112.

[12]   Hartland, W., Biddle, C., & Fallocaro, M. (2003). Assessing the living laboratory: Trigger films as an aid to developing, enabling, and as sessing anesthesia clinical instructors. AANA Journal, 71, 287-291.

[13]   Hartland, W., Biddle, C., & Fallocaro, M. (2008). Audiovisual facilita tion of clinical knowledge: A paradigm for dispersed student educa tion based on Paivio’s dual coding theory. AANA Journal, 76, 194 198.

[14]   Hasler, B. S., Kersten, B., & Sweller, J. (2007). Learner control, cogni tive load and instructional animation. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 21, 713-729. doi:10.1002/acp.1345

[15]   Howe, N., & Strauss, W. (2000). Millennials rising: The next great ge neration. New York: Vintage Books.

[16]   de Koning, B. B., Tabbers, H. K., Rikers, R. P., & Paas, F. (2007). Attention cueing as a means to enhance learning from an animation. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 21, 731e746. doi:10.1002/acp.1346

[17]   Leahy, W., & Sweller, J. (2011). Cognitive load theory, modality of presentation and the transient information effect. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 25. doi:10.1002/acp.1787

[18]   Lowe, R. (2004). Interrogation of a dynamic visualization during learn ing. Learning and Instruction, 14, 257e274. doi:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2004.06.003

[19]   Lusk, D. L., Evans, A. D., Jeffrey, T. R., Palmer, K. R., Wikstrom, C. S., & Doolittle, P. E. (2009). Multimedia learning and individual differences.

[20]   Merkt, M., et al. (2011). Learning and Instruction. Mediating the effects of working memory capacity with segmentation. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40, 636e651. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2008.00848.x

[21]   Magenheim, J., Reinhardt, W., Roth, A., Moi, M., & Engbring, D. (2010). Integration of a video annotation tool into coactive learning and working environment, key competencies in the knowledge society. IFIP AICT, 324, 257-268.

[22]   Martin Merkta, M.,Weigand S., Anke Heier, A., & Schwan, S. (2011). Learning with videos vs learning with print: The role of interactive features. Learning and Instruction, 21, 687-704.

[23]   Mayer, R. (2001). Multimedia learning. Cambridge: Cambridge Uni versity Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9781
139164603

[24]   Mayer, R., & Chandler, P. (2001). When learning is just a click away: Does simple user interaction foster deeper understanding of multi media messages? Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 390e397. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.93.2.390

[25]   Meixner, B., Holbling, G., Stegmaier, F., Kosch, H., Lehner, F., Sch mettow, M., & Siegel, B. (2009). SIVA producer—A modular authoring system for interactive videos. Proceedings of I-KNOW’09 and I-SEMANTICS’092, Graz, 215-225.

[26]   Moon, J. A. (2010). Using story: In higher education and professional development. New York: Routledge.

[27]   Oblinger, D., & Oblinger, J. (2005). Is it age or IT: First steps in under standing the net generation. Educating the Net Generation. Educause. http://www.educause.edu/research-and-publications/books/
educating-net-generation


[28]   Paivio, A. (1969). Mental imagery in associative learning and memory. Psychological Review, 76, 241e263. doi:10.1037/h0027272

[29]   Paivio, A. (1971). Imagery and verbal processes. Oxford: Holt, Rine hart & Winston.

[30]   Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants, part II: Do they really think differently? On the Horizon, 9, 15-24. http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/ doi:10.1108/10748120110424843

[31]   Prober, C. G., & Heath, C. (2012). Lecture halls without lectures—A proposal for medical education. New England Journal of Medicine, 366, 1657-1659. doi:10.1056/NEJMp1202451

[32]   Schnotz, W., & Kurschner, C. (2008). External and internal representa tions in the acquisition and use of knowledge: Visualization effects on mental model construction. Instructional Science, 36, 175-190. doi:10.1007/s11251-007-9029-2

[33]   Schwan, S., & Riempp R. (2004). The cognitive benefits of interactive videos: learning to tie nautical knots. Learning and Instruction, 14, 293-305. doi:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2004.06.005

[34]   Shepard, K. (2003). Questioning, promoting and evaluating the use of streaming video to support student learning. British Journal of Edu cational Technology, 34, 295-308. doi:10.1111/1467-8535.00328

[35]   Sweller, J., van Merrienboer, J., & Paas, F. (1998). Cognitive architec ture and instructional design. Educational Psychology Review, 10, 251e296. doi:10.1023/A:1022193728205

[36]   Threshold/ISTE Youth Forum (2004) Future chat. Threshold. http://www.ciconline.com/NR/rdonlyres/e4z
3cf2ylkjj6o5jnjpdr5pvsrh6okzwx5fokgw5slt2idy6om36rff4bzfusqrhqhhdt2ry7sbnjrggxv3nnf5kz2h/TSum-
-04-FutureChat.pdf


[37]   W. van der Molen., H. Juliette., & van der Voort, T. (1997). Children’s recall of television and print news: A media comparison study. Jour nal of Educational Psychology, 89, 82-91. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.89.1.82

[38]   W. van der Molen., H. Juliette., & van der Voort, T. (2000). Children’s and adults’ recall of television and print news in children’s and adult news formats. Communication Research, 27, 132-160.

[39]   Wouters, P., Paas, F., & van Merrienboer, J. G. (2010). Observational learning from animated models: Effects of studying-practicing alter nation and illusion of control on transfer. Instructional Science, 38, 89-104. doi:10.1007/s11251-008-9079-0

[40]   Wouters, P., Tabbers, H., & Paas, F. (2007). Interactivity in video based models. Educational Psychology Review, 19, 327-342. doi:10.1007/s10648-007-9045-4

[41]   Wetzel, C. D., Radtke, P. H., & Stern, H. (1994). Instructional effec tiveness of video media. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

 
 
Top