NM  Vol.1 No.2 , December 2010
Cerebrospinal Fluid Magnesium Level in Different Neurological Disorders
ABSTRACT
Magnesium (Mg) is an essential cofactor for many enzymatic reactions, especially those involved in energy metabolism. The aim of the present study was to determine the CSF concentration of Mg in various neurological disorders (n = 72) and in healthy subjects (n = 75). The control group included 35 males and 40 females, aged 16-89 years (mean age 53 years) who were subjected to a lumbar puncture for diagnostic reasons. The CSF examination was normal mainly as concerns the macroscopically examination, the leukocyte count and the protein level. The determination of Mg was performed with xylidyl-blue photometry. Our normal CSF Mg mean value was 0.97 ± 0.08 mmol/l (range 0.6-1.4 mmol/l). In the group of patients (n = 11) with convulsive seizures a slightly but significantly lower Mg were revealed (0.92 ± 0.03 mmol/l; p = 0.001; paired two-tailed Student’s t-tests). No statistically significant change of CSF Mg levels was noted in patients suffering from alcohol withdrawal syndrome, multiple sclerosis or Bell’s palsy. Our results indi-cate that magnesium deficiency may play a role for seizure manifestation even in patients with a moderate low Mg without neurological signs. Low CSF magnesium is associated with epilepsy, further studies may determine the influ-ence of anti-epileptic drug therapy on CSF magnesium levels.

Cite this paper
nullC. Haensch, "Cerebrospinal Fluid Magnesium Level in Different Neurological Disorders," Neuroscience and Medicine, Vol. 1 No. 2, 2010, pp. 60-63. doi: 10.4236/nm.2010.12009.
References
[1]   B. Bocca, A. Alimonti, O. Senofonte, A. Pino, N. Violante, F. Petrucci, G. Sancesario and G. Forte, “Metal Changes in CSF and Peripheral Compartments of Parkinsonian Patients,” Journal of the Neurological Sciences, Vol. 248, No. 1-2, 2006, pp. 23-30. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2006.05.007

[2]   E. Kapaki, J. Segditsa and C. Papageorgiou, “Zinc, Copper and Magnesium Concentration in Serum and CSF of Patients with Neurological Disorders,” Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, Vol. 79, No. 5, 1989, pp. 373-378. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0404.1989.tb03803.x

[3]   H. McConnell and J. Bianchine, “Cerebrospinal Fluid in Neurology and Psychiatry,” Chapmann & Hall, London, 1994, pp. 1-322.

[4]   A. Bayir, A. Ak, H. Kara and T. K. Sahin, “Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid Magnesium Levels, Glasgow Coma Scores, and in-Hospital Mortality in Patients with Acute Stroke,” Biological Trace Element Research, Vol. 130, No. 1, 2009, pp. 7-12. doi:10.1007/s12011-009-8318-9

[5]   L. Gerhardsson, T. Lundh, L. Minthon and E. Londos, “Metal Concentrations in Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease,” Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, Vol. 25, No. 6, 2008, pp. 508-515. doi:10.1159/000129365

[6]   M. G. Harrington, A. N. Fonteh, R. P. Cowan, K. Perrine, J. M. Pogoda, R. G. Biringer and A. F. Huhmer, “Cerebrospinal Fluid Sodium Increases in Migraine,” Headache, Vol. 46, No. 7, 2006, pp. 1128-1135. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4610.2006.00445.x

[7]   M. Elisaf, M. Merkouropoulos, E. V. Tsianos and K. C. Siamopoulos, “Pathogenetic Mechanisms of Hypomagnesemia in Alcoholic Patients,” Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1995, pp. 210-214

[8]   E. Ryzen, T. A. Nelson and R. K. Rude, “Low Blood Mononuclear Cell Magnesium Content and Hypocalcemia in Normomagnesemic Patients,” Western Journal of Medicine, Vol. 147, No. 5, 1987, pp. 549-553.

[9]   P. Kramp, R. Hemmingsen and O. J. Rafaelsen, “Magnesium Concentrations in Blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid during Delirium Tremens,” Psychiatry Research, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1979, pp. 161-171. doi:10.1016/0165-1781(79)90057-X

[10]   P. A. Abdelmalik, W. M. Burnham and P. L. Carlen, “Increased Seizure Susceptibility of the Hippocampus Compared with the Neocortex of the Immature Mouse Brain in Vitro,” Epilepsia, Vol. 46, No. 3, 2005, pp. 356-366.doi:10.1111/j.0013-9580.2005.34204.x

[11]   M. Derchansky, E. Shahar, R. A. Wennberg, M. Samoilova, S. S. Jahromi, P. A. Abdelmalik, L. Zhang and P. L. Carlen, “Model of Frequent, Recurrent, and Spontaneous Seizures in the Intact Mouse Hippocampus,” Hippocampus, Vol. 14, No. 8, 2004, pp. 935-947. doi:10.1002/hipo.20007

[12]   E. Shahar, M. Derchansky and P. L. Carlen, “The Role of Altered Tissue Osmolality on the Characteristics and Propagation of Seizure Activity in the Intact Isolated Mouse Hippocampus,” Clinical Neurophysiology, Vol. 120, No. 4, 2009, pp. 673-678. doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2009.01.014

[13]   J. Solger, U. Heinemann and J. Behr, “Electrical and Chemical Long-Term Depression Do Not Attenuate Low- Mg2+-Induced Epileptiform Activity in the Entorhinal Cortex,” Epilepsia, Vol. 46, No. 4, 2005, pp. 509-516. doi:10.1111/j.0013-9580.2005.41204.x

[14]   A. K. Sood, R. Handa, R. C. Malhotra and B. S. Gupta, “Serum, CSF, RBC & Urinary Levels of Magnesium & Calcium in Idiopathic Generalised Tonic Clonic Seizures,” Indian Journal of Medical Resesrch, Vol. 98, 1993, pp. 152-154.

[15]   L. J. Voss and J. W. Sleigh, “Stability of Brain Neocortical Slice Seizure-Like Activity during Low-Magnesium Exposure: Measurement and Effect of Artificial Cerebrospinal Fluid Temperature,” Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 2010, [Epub ahead of print], 10.1016/j. jneumeth.2010.07. 025.

[16]   M. S. George, D. Rosenstein, D. R. Rubinow, M. A. Kling and R. M. Post, “CSF Magnesium in Affective Disorder: Lack of Correlation with Clinical Course of Treatment,” Psychiatry Research, Vol. 51, No. 2, 1994, pp. 139-146. doi:10.1016/0165-1781(94)90033-7

[17]   M. E. Morris, “Brain and CSF Magnesium Concentrations during Magnesium Deficit in Animals and Humans: Neurological Symptoms,” Magnesium Research, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1992, pp. 303-313.

[18]   Y. Miyamoto, H. Yamamoto, H. Murakami, N. Kamiyama and M. Fukuda, “Studies on Cerebrospinal Fluid Ionized Calcium and Magnesium Concentrations in Convulsive Children,” Pediatrics International, Vol. 46, No. 4, 2004, pp. 394-397. doi:10.1111/j.1442-200x.2004.01922.x

 
 
Top