JEP  Vol.4 No.7 A , July 2013
Effects of Environmental Water Contamination in the Reproductive System of Mice
Abstract: This study investigated the effects on the reproductive system of balb-c mice exposed to water collected from different sources near to a deactivated fertilizer waste depositary. Eighty male mice were separated in four groups: Group A (mineral water); Group B (water from the water treatment station); Group C (water from Cubatao city); Group D (water from the waste depositary region). They were exposed to water since they were weaned until they reached sexual maturity, then they were coupled with females in reproductive age and after this mating time they were sacrificed. The evaluated parameters were testicle weight, sperm analysis, pregnancy rate, sex ratio of the offspring and Sertoli cell count. The analysis of the water did not show presence of pollutants in the Group “A” and Group “C” water. Group “B” showed low level of cadmium, 3.58 ± 0.50 μg/L. Group “D” showed the presence of PAH’s and high levels of lead (221 ± 16 μg/L), cadmiun (12.6 ± 1.2 μg/L) and mercury (5.3 ± 1.1 μg/L). The tests of Levene and Kolmogorov-Smirnov were employed to verify the homogeneity of the variances and the tack to the normal curve, respectively. ANOVA was used for parametric tests and Kruskall-Wallis was used for non-parametric tests, while Turkey tests were employed for multiple comparisons. There were no differences between groups in testicle weight, sperm analysis, pregnancy rate and Sertoli cell count. There was a significant reduction in sex-ratio of the offspring in Group B. This alteration cannot be explained by the cadmium levels in Group B water. In the present study we cannot associate the exposition to contaminated water from the waste depositary and reproductive alterations.
Cite this paper: P. Pereira, A. Lichtenfels, L. Pereira, O. Malm, P. Saldiva, A. Braga and C. Lin, "Effects of Environmental Water Contamination in the Reproductive System of Mice," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 4 No. 7, 2013, pp. 121-125. doi: 10.4236/jep.2013.47A014.

[1]   J. Weiss, O. Bauer, A. Bluthgen, A. Ludwig, E. Vollersen, M. Kaisi, S. Al-Hasani, K. Diedrich and M. Ludwig, “Distribution of Persistent Organochlorine Contaminants in Infertile Patients from Tanzania and Germany,” Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics, Vol. 23, No. 9-10, 2006, pp. 393-399. doi:10.1007/s10815-006-9069-6

[2]   M. Wade, W. Foster, E. Younglai, A. Macmahon, K. Leingartner, A. Yagminas, D. Blakey, M. Fournier, D. Desaulniers and C. Hughes, “Effects of Sub Chronic Exposure to a Complex Mixture of Persistent Contaminants in Male Rats: Systemic, Immune, and Reproductive Effects,” Toxicological sciences, Vol. 67, No. 1, 2002, pp. 131-143. doi:10.1093/toxsci/67.1.131

[3]   M. Spano, G. Toft, L. Hagmar, P. Eleuteri, M. Rescia, A. Rignell-Hydbom, E. Tyrkiel, V. Zvyezday and J. Bonde, “Exposure to PCB and p,p’-DDE in European and Inuit Populations: Impact on Human Sperm Chromatin Integrity,” Human Reproduction, Vol. 20, No. 12, 2005, pp. 3488-3499. doi:10.1093/humrep/dei297

[4]   L. Multigner and A. Oliva, “Secular Variations in Sperm Quality: Fact or Science Fiction?” Cadernos de Saúde Pública, Vol. 18, No. 2, 2002, pp. 403-412. doi:10.1590/S0102-311X2002000200004

[5]   J. W. Dallinga, E. J. C. Moonen, J. C. M. Dumoulin, J. L. H. Evers, J. P. M. Geraedts and J. C. S. Kleinjans, “Decrease Human Semen Quality and Organochlorine Compounds in Blood,” Human Reproduction, Vol. 17, No. 8, 2002, pp. 1973-1979. doi:10.1093/humrep/17.8.1973

[6]   Y. Xia, S. Cheng, Q. Bian, L. Xu, M. Collins, H. Chang, L. Song, J. Liu, S. Wang and X. Wang, “Genotoxic Effects on Spermatozoa of Carbaryl-Exposed Workers,” Toxicological Sciences, Vol. 85, No. 1, 2005, pp. 615-623. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfi066

[7]   D. L. Davis, H. L. Bradlow, M. Wolff, T. Woodruff, D. Hoel and H. Anton-Culver, “Medical Hypothesis: Xenoestrogens as Preventable Causes of Breast Cancer,” Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 101, No. 5, 1993, pp. 372-377.

[8]   J. G. Brody and R. A. Rudel, “Environmental Pollutants and Breast Cancer,” Environmental Health Perspective, Vol. 111, No. 8, 2003, pp. 1007-1019. doi:10.1289/ehp.6310

[9]   J. Skarda, “Sensitivity and Specificity of Bioassay of Estrogenicity on Mammary Gland and Uterus of Female Mice,” Physiological Research, Vol. 51, No. 2002, pp. 407-412.

[10]   L. A. Jones and R. A. Hajek, “Effects of Estrogenic Chemicals on Development,” Environmental Health Perspective, Vol. 103, No. 7, 1995, pp. 63-67.

[11]   D. M. Fry, “Reproductive Effects in Birds Exposed to Pesticides and Industrial Chemicals,” Environmental Health Perspective, Vol. 103, No. 7, 1995, pp. 165-171.

[12]   L. Várnagy, T. Varga, I. Hlubik, P. Budai and E. Molnár, “Toxicity of the Herbicides Flubalex, Fulaside S and Maloran 50 WP to Chicken Embryos after Administration as Single Compounds or in Combination,” Acta Veterinaria Hungarica, Vol. 44, No. 3, 1996, pp. 363-376.

[13]   E. Florek and A. Marszalek, “An Experimental Study of the Influences of Tobacco Smoke on Fertility and Reproduction,” Human & Experimental Toxicology, Vol. 18, No. 4, 1999, pp. 272-278.

[14]   S Sinawat, “The Environment Impact on Male Fertlity,” Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Vol. 83, No. 8, 2000, pp. 880-885.

[15]   F. Comhaire, A. Mahmoud and F. Schoonjans “Sperm Quality, Birth Rates and the Environment in Flanders (Belgium),” Reproductive Toxicology, Vol. 23, No. 2, 2007, pp. 133-137. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2006.11.001

[16]   R. Mehta and T. Kumar, “Traffic Pollutants Affecting Male Fertility,” Human Reproduction, Vol. 18, No. 9, 2003, p. 1981. doi:10.1093/humrep/deg373

[17]   A. Lichtenfels, J. Gomes, P. Pieri, S. Miraglia, J. Hallak and P. Saldiva, “Increased Levels of Air Pollution and a Decrease in the Human and Mouse Male-to-Female Ratio in Sao Paulo, Brazil,” Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 87, No. 1, 2007, pp. 230-232. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2006.06.023

[18]   F. Parazzini, L. Chatenoud, C. Maffioletti, F. Chiaffarino and D. Caserta, “Periconceptional Smoking and Male: Female Ratio of Newborns,” European Journal of Public Health, Vol. 15, No. 6, 2005, pp. 613-614. doi:10.1093/eurpub/cki052