IJG  Vol.4 No.5 , July 2013
Bioremediation of Acetochlor in Soil and Water Systems by Cyanobacterial Mat
Abstract: This study investigated the bioremediation of organic pollution in soil and water systems by cyanobacterial mats collected from Wadi Gaza. Acetochlor, a model compound of herbicide, was used as a standard organic pollutant. Various concentrations of acetochlor were injected in soil and water samples pre-treated with cyanobacterial mat for several periods of time. Percentage of growth of wheat as a test plant was taken as indicator of bioremediation of acetochlor. Results showed that acetochlor was degraded in both soil and water systems. Degradation was much faster in the water system than in the soil system. Concentrations of acetochlor above the field rate did not affect the bioremediation process in the water system whereas it did in soil pots. Furthermore, bioremediation in water system was nearly completed in 15 days whereas it did not reach high percentage in the soil system. These encouraging results are new contribution in field of bioremediation of pesticide by cyanobacterial mats and suggest that application of cyanobacterial mat could be a fast and suitable methodology for bioremediation of organic pollutant in the ecosystem.
Cite this paper: Y. El-Nahhal, Y. Awad and J. Safi, "Bioremediation of Acetochlor in Soil and Water Systems by Cyanobacterial Mat," International Journal of Geosciences, Vol. 4 No. 5, 2013, pp. 880-890. doi: 10.4236/ijg.2013.45082.

[1]   O. Andrén and J. Lagerlof, “Soil Fauna Microarthropods. Enchytraeids, Nematodes in Swedish Agricultural Cropping Systems,” Acta Agriculture Scandinavian, Vol. 33, No. 1, 1983, pp. 33-52. doi:10.1080/00015128309435350

[2]   D. J. Ecobichon, J. E. Davies, J. Doull, M. Ehrich, R. Joy, D. McMillan, R. MacPhail, L. W. Reiter, W. Slikker and H. Tilson, “Neurotoxic Effects of Pesticides,” In: C. F. Wilkinson and S. R. Baker, Eds., The Effect of Pesticides on Human Health, Princeton Scientific Publisher, Princeton, 1990, pp. 131-199.

[3]   D. Pimentel, “Ecological Effects of Pesticides on Non-Target Species in Terrestrial Ecosystems,” In: R. G. Tardiff, Ed., SCOPE 49: Methods to Assess Adverse Effects of Pesticides on Non-Target Organisms, John Wiley & Sons, Toronto, 1992, pp. 171-190.

[4]   Environmental Protection Agency, “Questions and Answers, Conditional Registration of Acetochlor,” US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC, 1994.

[5]   D. W. Kolpin, B. K. Nations, D. A. Goolsby and E. M. Thurman, “Acetochlor in the Hydrologic System in the Midwestern United States,” Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 30, No. 5, 1996, pp. 1459-1464. doi:10.1021/es9503241

[6]   A. William, D. Battaglin, W. Kolpin, A. Elizabeth, K. Scribner, M. Kuivila and W. Mark, “Glyphosate, Other Herbicides, and Transformation Products in Midwestern Streams, 20021,” Journal of American Water Research Association, Vol. 41, No. 2, 2005, pp. 323-329. doi:10.1111/j.1752-1688.2005.tb03738.x

[7]   J. Gilliom, E. Barbash, G. Crawford, A. Hamilton, D. Martin, N. Nakagaki, H. Nowell, C. Scott, E. Stackelberg, P. Thelin and M. Wolock, “Pesticides in the Nation’s Streams and Ground Water, 1992-2001,” The Quality of Our Nation’s Waters, Series Number 1291, USGS, 2006.

[8]   Y. El-Nahhal, S. Nir, S. Serban, O. Rabinowitz and B. Rubin, “Organoclay Formulation of Acetochlor for Reduced Movement in Soil,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 49, No. 11, 2001, pp. 5464-5371. doi:10.1021/jf010561p

[9]   M. Balinova, “Acetochlor-a Comparative Study on Parameters Governing the Potential for Water Pollution,” Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B, Vol. 32, No. 5, 1997, pp. 645-658.

[10]   Y. El-Nahhal, “Persistence, Mobility, Efficacy and Safety of Chloroacetanilide Herbicide Formulation under Field Conditions,” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 124, No. 1, 2003, pp. 33-38. doi:10.1016/S0269-7491(02)00431-1

[11]   L. N. Konda and Z. S. Pasztor, “Environmental Distribution of Acetochlor, Atrazine, Chlorpyrifos and Propisochlor under Field Conditions,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 49, No. 8, 2001, pp. 3859-3863. doi:10.1021/jf010187t

[12]   P. M. Hurley, R. N. Hill and R. J. Whiting, “Mode of Carcinogenic Action of Pesticides Inducing Thyroid Follicular Cell Tumors in Rodents,” Environmental Health Perspective, Vol. 106, No. 8, 1998, pp. 437-446. doi:10.1289/ehp.98106437

[13]   P. J. Deirickx, “Glutathione-Dependent Cytotoxicity of The Chloroacetanilide Herbicides Alachlor, Metolachlor, and Propachlor in Rat and Human Hepatoma-Derived Cultured Cells,” Cell Biology and Toxicology, Vol. 15, No. 5, 1999, pp. 325-332. doi:10.1023/A:1007619919336

[14]   K. L. Dearfield, N. E. Mc Carroll, A. Protzel, H. F. Stack, M. A. Jackson and M. D. Waters, “A Survey of EPA/OPP and Open Literature on Selected Pesticide Chemicals II. Mutagenicity and Carcinogenicity of Selected Chloroacetanilides and Related Compounds,” Mutation Research, Vol. 443, No. 1-2, 1999, pp. 183-221. doi:10.1016/S1383-5742(99)00019-8

[15]   United States Environment Protection Agency, “Acetochlor: Fifth Report of the Cancer Assessment Review Committee,” OPP Official Record, Health Effect Division, Scientific Data Reviews, EPA, Washington DC, 2007.

[16]   R. M. M. Abed, N. M. D. Safi, J. Koster, D. de Beer, Y. El-Nahhal, J. Rullkotter and F. Garcia-Pichel, “Microbial Diversity of a Heavily Polluted Microbial Mat and Its Community Changes Following Degradation of Petroleum Compounds,” Applied Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 68, No. 4, 2002, pp. 1674-1683. doi:10.1128/AEM.68.4.1674-1683.2002

[17]   N. Safi, J. Koster and J. Rulkotter, “Fossil Fuel Pollution in Wadi Gaza and Biodegradation of Petroleum Model Compounds by Cyanobacterial Mats,” The 36th Congress of the International Commission for the Scientific Exploration of the Mediterranean Sea, Monaco, 2001, p. 209.

[18]   N. Safi, N. Lee, J. Koster, J. Safi, Y. El-Nahhal, M. Wagner and J. Rullkotter, “Biodegradation of Petroleum Modle Compounds by in Mesocosm Experiments in Gaza (Palestine),” 21st International Meeting on Organic Geochemistry, Krakow, 8-12 September 2003, pp. 138-139.

[19]   N. Safi, “Environment Organic Geochemistry of Sediments from Wadi Gaza and Investigation of Bioremediation of Petroleum Derivatives and Herbicides by Cyanobacterial Mats under Different Experimental Conditions,” Ph.D. Thesis, Carl von Ossietzky Universitat, Oldenburg, 2004

[20]   C. D. Tomlin, “The Pesticide Manual,” British Crop Protection Council, Farnham, 2000.

[21]   Y. El-Nahhal, S. Nir, T. Polubesova and L. Margulies, “Rubin B. Leaching, Phytotoxicity and Weed Control of New Formulations of Alachlor,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 46, No. 8, 1998, pp. 3305-3313. doi:10.1021/jf971062k

[22]   W. H. Paerl, F. T. Steppe, C. K. Buchan and M. Potts, “Hypersaline Cyanobacterial Mats as Indicators of Elevated Tropical Hurricane Activity and Associated Climate Change,” Ambio, Vol. 32, No. 2, 2003, pp. 87-90.

[23]   J. Ma, R. Zheng, L. Xu and S. Wang, “Differential SensiTivity of Two Green Alga Scenedesmus obliqnus and Chlorella pyrenoidosa to 12 Pesticides,” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Vol. 52, No. 1, 2002, pp. 57-61. doi:10.1006/eesa.2002.2146

[24]   Y. El-Nahhal, “Leaching Behavior of Metolachlor in Soil,” Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2004, pp. 187-194. doi:10.1139/s03-075

[25]   Y. El-Nahhal, G. Lagaly and O. Rabinovitz, “Organo-Clay Formulations of Acetochlor: Effect of High Salt,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 53, No. 5, 2005, pp. 1620-1624. doi:10.1021/jf040383a

[26]   M. Dictor, N. Baran, A. Gautier and C. Mouvet, “Acetochlor Mineralization and Fate of Its Two Major Metabolites in Two Soils under Laboratory Conditions,” Chemosphere, Vol. 71, No. 4, 2008, pp. 663-670. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.10.066

[27]   J. Xu, M. Yang, J. Dai, H. Cao, C. Pan, X. Qiu and M. Xu, “Degradation of Acetochlor by Four Microbial Communities,” Bio-Resource Technology, Vol. 99, No. 16, 2008, pp. 7797-7802. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2008.01.060

[28]   D. Virág, Z. Naár and A. Kiss, “Microbial Toxicity of Pesticide Derivatives Produced with UV-Photodegradation,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol. 79, No. 3, 2007, pp. 356-359. doi:10.1007/s00128-007-9230-7

[29]   S. Grotzschel, J. Koster, R. M. Abed and D. de Beer, “Degradation of Petroleum Model Compounds Immobilized on Clay by a Hypersaline Microbial Mat,” Biodegradation, Vol. 13, No. 4, 2002, pp. 273-283. doi:10.1023/A:1021263009377

[30]   M. Wu, X. Zhang, H. Zhang, Y. Zhang, X. Li, Q. Zhou and C. Zhang, “Soil Pseudomonas Community Structure and Its Antagonism towards Rhizoctonia solani under the Stress of Acetochlor,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol. 83, No. 3, 2009, pp. 313-317.

[31]   A. Munoz, W. C. Koskinen, L. Cox and M. J. Sadowsky, “Biodegradation and Mineralization of Metolachlor and Alachlor by Candida xestobii,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 59, No. 2, 2011, pp. 619-627. doi:10.1021/jf103508w

[32]   H. W. Zhang, Q. X. Zhou, Q. R. Zhang and C. G. Zhang, “Soil Pseudomonas Community Structure and Its Antagonism towards Rhizoctonia solani under the Stress of Acetochlor,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol. 83, No. 3, 2009, pp. 313-317. doi:10.1007/s00128-009-9731-7

[33]   J. Zhang, J. W. Zheng, B. Liang, C. H. Wang, S. Cai, Y. Y. Ni, J. He and S. P. Li, “Biodegradation of Chloro-Acetamide Herbicides by Paracoccus sp. FLY-8 in Vitro,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 59, No. 9, 2011, pp. 4614-4621. doi:10.1021/jf104695g