White mulberry tree (Morusalba L) is cultivated throughout Asia and Europe, including Poland. The
leaves and root bark preparations from Morus
alba have been used in traditional phytomedicine. The objective of the
present study was to compare chemical composition and antioxidative activity
of aqueous extracts prepared from Polish variety of Morus alba leaves at the laboratory (L) and pilot plant scale (PP)
conditions. Proximate composition, phenolic acids profile (HPLC/MS), flavonol
glicosides (HPLC/ MS), polyphenols (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), and the antioxidant
activity (ABTS and DPPH assay) of the extracts were determined. The main phenolic
compounds were identified as gallic, protocatechuic, phydroxybenzoic, vanillic,
chlorogenic, caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic, and sinapic acids. Chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic
constituent of both extracts. The flavonols fraction contained rutin,
quercetin 3-β-D-glucoside, and kaempferol 3-β-D- glucopyranoside. Total
concentration of phenolic compounds were 7.9 g and 14.4 g gallic acid
equivalent/100 g extract, and antioxidant activity was 137.1 and 214.1 μMol
Trolox equivalent/g dry weight for the PP and L extracts, respectively. We concluded that current pilot plant
process is less efficient than laboratory process at the aqueous extraction of
bioactive components from Morus alba dried leaves. Potential improvements may include increasing efficacy of the
extraction, decreasing losses of bioactive components during the process, or
Cite this paper
Flaczyk, E. , Kobus-Cisowska, J. , Przeor, M. , Korczak, J. , Remiszewski, M. , Korbas, E. and Buchowski, M. (2013) Chemical characterization and antioxidative properties of Polish variety of Morus alba L. leaf aqueous extracts from the laboratory and pilot-scale processes. Agricultural Sciences, 4, 141-147. doi: 10.4236/as.2013.45B026.
 Amarowicz, R., Pegg, R.B. and Bautista, D.A. (2000) Antibacterial activity of green tea polyphenols against Escherichia coli K 12, Food / Nahrung, 441, 60-62.
 Andjelkovic, M., Van Camp, J., De Meulenaer, B., et al. (2006) Iron-chelation properties of phenolic acids bearing catechol and galloyl groups. Food Chemistry, 98, 23-31.
 Arabshahi-D. S., Devi, D.V. and Urooj, A. (2007) Evaluation of antioxidant activity of some plant extracts and their heat, pH and storage stability. Food Chemistry, 100, 1100-1105.doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.11.014
 Butt, M.S., Nazir, A., Sultan, M.T. and Schroën, K. (2008) Morus alba L. nature's functional tonic. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 19,505-512.
 Cheung, L.M., Cheung, P.C.K. and Ooi, V.E.C. (2003) Antioxidant activity and total phenolics of edible mushroom extracts. Food Chemistry, 81, 249-55.
 Gliszczyńska-Swiglo, A., Ciska, E., Pawlak-Lemańska, K., Chmielewski, J., Borkowski, T. and Tyrakowska, B. (2006) Changes in the content of health-promoting compounds and antioxidant activity of broccoli after domestic processing. Food Additives and Contaminants, 23, 1088-1098.doi:10.1080/02652030600887594
 Heo, H.J., Kim, Y.J., Chung, D. and Kim, D.-O. (2007) Antioxidant capacities of individual and combined phenolics in a model system. Food Chemistry, 104, 87-92.
 Katsube, T., Imawaka, N., Kawano, Y., Yamazaki, Y., Shiwaku, K. and Yamane, Y. (2006) Antioxidant flavonol glycosides in mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves isolated based on LDL antioxidant activity. Food Chemistry, 97, 25-31.doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.03.019.
 Katsube, T., Tsurunaga, Y., Sugiyama, M., Furuno, T. and Yamasaki, Y. (2009) Effect of air-drying temperature on antioxidant capacity and stability of polyphenolic compounds in mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves. Food Chemistry, 113, 964-969.doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.08.041.
 Kim, S.Y., Gao, J., Lee, W., Ryu, K., Lee, K. and Kim, Y. (1999) Antioxidative flavonoids from the leaves of Morus alba. Arch Ph Res, 122, 81-85.
 Kobus, J., Flaczyk, E., Siger, A., Nogala-Kalucka, M., Korczak, J., Pegg, R.B. (2009) Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of extracts of Ginkgo leaves. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 111, 1150-1160.doi:10.1002/ejlt.200800299
 Memon, A., Memon, N., Luthria D., MI B., AA P. (2010) Phenolic acids profiling and antioxidant potential of mulberry (Morus laevigata W., Morus nigra L., Morus alba L.) leaves and fruits grown in Pakistan. Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci, 60, 25-32.
 Nakamura, M., Nakamura, S., Oku, T. (2009) Suppressive response of confections containing the extractive from leaves of Morus Alba on postprandial blood glucose and insulin in healthy human subjects. Nutrition & Metabolism, 6, 29.doi:10.1186/1743-7075-6-29
 Paganga, G., Miller, N., Rice-Evans, C.A. (1999) The polyphenolic content of fruit and vegetables and their antioxidant activities. What does a serving constitute? Free Radical Research. 30, 153-162.
 Przeor, M., Flac-zyk, E. (2011) The influence of drying temperature on the antioxidative properties of shoots and leaves of White Mulberry (Morus alba L.). Adv Argic Sci Probl Issues, 569, 277-283.
 Re, R., Pellegrini, N., Proteggente, A., Pannala, A., Yang, M. and Rice-Evans C. (1999) Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 26, 1231-1237.
 Song, W., Wang, H.J., Bucheli, P., Zhang, P.F., Wei, D.Z. and Lu, Y.H. (2009) Phytochemical Profiles of Different Mulberry (Morus sp.) Species from China. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57, 9133-9140.
 Srivastava, S., Kapoor, R., Thathola, A. and Srivastava, R.P. (2003) Mulberry (Moms alba) leaves as human food: a new dimension of sericulture. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 54, 411-416.
 Su, L., Yin, J.-J., Charles, D., Zhou, K., Moore, J. and Yu, L. (2007) Total phenolic contents, chelating capacities, and radical-scavenging properties of black peppercorn, nutmeg, rosehip, cinnamon and oregano leaf. Food Chemistry, 100, 990-997.
 Tang, S.Z., Kerry, J.P., Sheehan, D. and Buckley, D.J. (2002) Antioxidative mechanisms of tea catechins in chicken meat systems. Food Chemistry, 76, 45-51.
 Wang, L., Tu, Y.-C., Lian, T.-W., Hung, J.-T., Yen, J.-H., Wu, M.-J. (2006) Distinctive Antioxidant and Antiinflammatory Effects of Flavonols. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54, 9798-9804.
 Wang, W.X., Yang, H.J., Bo, Y.K., Ding, S. and Cao, B.H. (2012) Nutrient composition, polyphenolic contents, and in situ protein degradation kinetics of leaves from three mulberry species. Livestock Science, 146, 203-206.
 Yang, J., Guo, J., Yuan, J. (2008) In vitro antioxidant properties of rutin. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 41, 1060-1066.doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2007.06.010