This study determined
the levels of microcystins in water and fish from Phayao Lake, Phayao Province
and selected fish ponds along the Ing River tributary in Chiang Rai Province.
Samples were collected monthly for 8 months (January to August 2011 for Phayao
Lake, and November 2008 to June 2009 for fish ponds) and were analyzed by HPLC.
The highest total microcystin-LR levels in water and fish in Phayao Lake were
recorded in April 2010 at 2.60 ± 2.48 μg·L-1 and 0.20 ± 0.03 μg·kg-1 dry weight, respectively.
Microcystis aeruginosa Kütz were the dominant species (271.6 ± 72.4 mm3/m3)
in the lake. Colony number of Microcystis spp showed a positive correlation
with soluble orthophosphate (r2 = 0.77). Similarly, Nile
tilapia ponds surveyed along the tributary in Chiang Rai were contaminated with
microcystins as well. The highest concentration detected in water was in March
2009 (0.58 ± 0.24 μg·L-1),
whilst the maximum concentration in fish was recorded in April 2009 (2.68 ± 0.51
μg·kg-1 dry weight). Microcystis spp.
dominated the pond waters and was positively correlated with chlorophyll a (r2=0.80)
and soluble nitrate (r2=0.71). The highest
concentration of the cyanobacteria was recorded in February 2009 at 4272.5 ± 62.3
mm3/m3. Results showed that total microcystin-LR concentration
in fish in Chiang Rai ponds were higher than in Phayao Lake. This study suggested
the possible health risks associated with the bioaccumulation of microcystins
in fish (Nile tilapia) cultivated in fish ponds along the tributary in Chiang
Rai and in Phayao Lake.
Cite this paper
Whangchai, N. , Wanno, S. , Gutierrez, R. , Kannika, K. , Promna, R. , Iwami, N. and Itayama, T. (2013) Accumulation of microcystins in water and economic fish in Phayao Lake, and fish ponds along the Ing River tributary in Chiang Rai, Thailand. Agricultural Sciences, 4, 52-56. doi: 10.4236/as.2013.45B010.
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