Electronic Throttle Control System: Modeling, Identification and Model-Based Control Designs

Show more

Electronic throttle control (ETC) system has worked its way to becoming a standard subsystem in most of the current automobiles as it has contributed much to the improvement of fuel economy, emissions, drivability and safety. Precision control of the subsystem, which consists of a dc motor driving a throttle plate, a pre-loaded return spring and a set of gear train to regulate airflow into the engine, seems rather straightforward and yet complex. The difficulties lie in the unknown system parameters, hard nonlinearity of the pre-loaded spring that pulls the throttle plate to its default position, and friction, among others. In this paper, we extend our previous results obtained for the modeling, unknown system parameters identification and control of a commercially available Bosch’s DV-E5 ETC system. Details of modeling and parameters identification based on laboratory experiments, data analysis, and knowledge of the system are provided. The parameters identification results were verified and validated by a real-time PID control implemented with an xPC Target. A nonlinear control design was then proposed utilizing the input-output feedback linearization approach and technique. In view of a recent massive auto recalls due to the controversial uncontrollable engine accelerations, the results of this paper may inspire further research interest on the drive-by-wire technology.

References

[1] H. Streib and G. Bischof, “Electronic Throttle Control (ETC): A Cost Effective System for Improved Emissions, Fuel Economy, and Drivability,” SAE No. 960338, 1996.

[2] W. Huber, B. Lieberoth-Leden, W. Maisch and A. Reppich, “Electronic Throttle Control,” Automotive Engineering, Vol. 99, No. 6, 1991, pp. 15-18.

[3] T. Kowatari, T. Usui, and S. Tokumoto, “Optimization of an Electronic-Throttle-Control Actuator for Gasoline Direct-Injection Engines,” SAE Paper No. 1999-01-0542, 1999.

[4] C. Rossi, A. Tilli and A. Tonielli, “Robust Control of a Throttle Body for Drive by Wire Operation of Automotive Engines,” IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, Vol. 8, No. 6, 2000, pp. 993-1002.
doi:10.1109/87.880604

[5] R. N. K. Loh, T. Pornthanomwong, J. S. Pyko, A. Lee and M. N. Karsiti, “Modeling, Parameters Identification, and Control of an Electronic Throttle Control (ETC) System,” Proceedings of 2007 International Conference on Intelligent and Advanced Systems, Vol. 1, Malaysia, 2007, pp. 1029-1035. doi:10.1109/ICIAS.2007.4658541

[6] C. C. de Wit, I. Kolmanovsky and J. Sun, “Adaptive Pulse Control of Electronic Throttle,” Proceedings of American Control Conference, Virginia, 2001, pp. 2872-2877.

[7] A. Contreras, I. Quiroz and C. C. de Wit, “Further Results on Modeling and Identification of an Electronic Throttle Body,” Proceedings of 10th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation, Lisbon, 2002.

[8] J. Deur, D. Pavkovic, N. Peric, M. Jansz and D. Hrovat, “An Electronic Throttle Control Strategy Including Compensation of Friction and Limp-Home Effects,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 40, No. 3, 2004, pp. 821-833. doi:10.1109/TIA.2004.827441

[9] J. Deur, D. Pavkovic, M. Jansz and N. Peric, “Automatic Tuning of Electronic Throttle Control Strategy,” Proceedings of 11th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation (MED’03), Rhodes, 2003.

[10] M. Vasak, L. Mladenovic and N. Peric, “Clustering-Based Identification of a Piecewise Affine Electronic Throttle Model,” Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Vol. 1, Raleigh, 2005, pp. 177-182.

[11] K. Nakano, U. Sawut, K. Higuchi and Y. Okajima, “Modeling and Observer-Based Sliding-Mode Control of Electronic Throttle Systems,” ETCI Transactions on Electrical Engineering, Electronics, and Communications, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2006, pp. 22-28.

[12] C. Yang, “Model-Based Analysis and Tuning of Electronic Throttle Controllers,” SAE Paper #2004-01-0524, 2004.

[13] R. N. K. Loh, S. Elashhab, M. A. Zohdy and A. Lee, “Modeling and Design of an Automotive Throttle Control System,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Systems (ICIS2005), Kala Lumpur, December 2005.

[14] A. Kitahara, A. Sato, M. Hoshino, N. Kurihara and S. Shin, “LQG Based Electronic Throttle Control with a Two Degree of Freedom Structure,” Proceedings of 35th Conference on Decision and Control, Kobe, 11-13 December 1995, pp. 1785-1788.

[15] M. Horn and M. Reichhartinger, “Second-Order Sliding Mode Control of Electronic Throttle Valves,” International Workshop Variable Structure Systems 2008, Antalya, 2008, pp. 280-284. doi:10.1109/VSS.2008.4570721

[16] U. Ozguner, S. Hong and Y. Pan, “Discrete-Time Sliding Mode Control of Electronic Throttle Valve,” Proceedings of 40th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, Orlando, 4-7 December 2001, pp. 1819-1824.

[17] M. Baric, I. Petrovic and N. Peric, “Neural Network Based Sliding Mode Control of Electronic Throttle,” Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 18, 2005, pp. 951-961. doi:10.1016/j.engappai.2005.03.008

[18] Z. Xu and P. Ioannou, “Adaptive Throttle Control for Speed Tracking,” California PATH Research Paper, UCB-ITS-PRR-94-09, April 1994.

[19] D. Kim, H. Peng, S. Bai and J. M. Maguire, “Control of Integrated Powertrain with Electronic Throttle and Automatic Transmission,” IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2007, pp. 474-482.
doi:10.1109/TCST.2007.894641

[20] T. Aono and T. Kowatari, “Throttle-Control Algorithm for Improving Engine Response Based on Air-Intake Model and Throttle-Response Model,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 53, No. 3, 2006, pp. 915-921. doi:10.1109/TIE.2006.874263

[21] “Technical Customer Information Manual: DV-E5 Throttle Body for ETC Systems,” Robert Bosch GmbH, 2000.

[22] L. Ljung, “System Identification: Theory for the User,” Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, 1987.

[23] T. Soderstrom and P. Stoica, “System Identification,” Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, 1989.

[24] B. C. Kuo, “Automatic Control Systems,” 8th Edition, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, 2003.

[25] P. S. Shiakolas and D. Piyabongkarn, “Development of a Real-Time Digital Control System with a Hardware in-the-Loop Magnetic Levitation Device for Reinforcement of Controls Education,” IEEE Transactions on Education, Vol. 46, No. 1, 2003, pp. 79-87.
doi:10.1109/TE.2002.808268

[26] K. H. Low, H. Wang and M. Y. Wang, “On the Development of a Real Time Control System by Using xPC Target: Solution to Robotic System Control,” Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering, Edmonton, 2005, pp. 345-350.

[27] A. Isidori, “Nonlinear Control Systems,” Springer-Verlag, New York, 1995. doi:10.1007/978-1-84628-615-5

[28] H. K. Khalil, “Nonlinear Systems, ” 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, 2002.

[29] H. Marquez, “Nonlinear Control Systems, Analysis and Design,” Wiley Interscience, Hoboken, 2003.

[30] H. A. Talebi, R. V. Patel and K. Khorasani, “Control of Flexible-Link Manipulators Using neural Networks,” Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences, Springer-Verlag, London, 2001.

[31] C. Edwards and S. Spurgeon, “Sliding Mode Control Theory and Applicationsm” Taylor & Francis, London, 1998.