Back
 AJAC  Vol.4 No.7 A , July 2013
Heterogeneous Oxidation of Methylene Blue with Surface-Modified Iron-Amended Activated Carbon
Abstract: The present study aims to develop effective adsorption and oxidation of synthetic dye in wastewater by using the newly synthesized iron-amended activated carbon. Recently synthetic dye-containing wastewater has gained more attention due to its mass discharge, high toxicity and low biodegradation. For enhancing adsorption of dye and oxidative regeneration of dye-exhausted activated carbon, the novel amendment of iron-deposited granular activated carbon (GAC) was developed. It was to amend ferrous ion onto the acid-pretreated GAC when pH of iron solution was higher than the pH at point of zero charge (pH, pzc) of the GAC. Methylene blue (MB) in water was adsorbed onto the acid-treated iron- amended GAC (Fe-GAC) followed by single or multiple applications of H2O2. Batch experiments were carried out to study the adsorption isotherm and kinetics indicating adsorption of MB onto the Fe-GAC followed Langmuir isotherm and the pseudo-second order kinetics. The Fe-GACshowed the maximum adsorption capacity (qm) of 238.1 ± 0.78 mg/g which was higher than the virgin GAC with qm of 175.4 ± 13.6 mg/g at 20?C, pH 6 and the initial concentration of 20 - 200 mg/L. The heterogeneous Fenton oxidation of MB in the Fe-GAC revealedthat increasing the H2O2 loading from 7 to 140 mmol H2O2/mmol MB led to enhancing the oxidation efficiency of MB in the GAC from 62.6% to 100% due to the increased generation of hydroxyl radicals. Further enhancement of oxidation of MB in the Fe-GAC was made by the multiple application of H2O2 while minimizing OH radical scavenging often occurring at high concentration of H2O2. Therefore, the acid-treated iron-amended GAC would provide excellent adsorption capacity for MB and high oxidation efficiency of MB in the GAC with multiple applications of H2O2 and optimum iron loading.
Cite this paper: J. Kim, B. Santiano, H. Kim and E. Kan, "Heterogeneous Oxidation of Methylene Blue with Surface-Modified Iron-Amended Activated Carbon," American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 4 No. 7, 2013, pp. 115-122. doi: 10.4236/ajac.2013.47A016.
References

[1]   S. Khorramfar, N. M. Mahmoodi, M. Arami and K. Gharanjig, “Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies of the Cationic Dye Removal Capability of a Novel Biosorbent Tamarindus Indica from Textile Wastewater,” Coloration Technology, Vol. 126, No. 5, 2010, pp. 261-268. doi:10.1111/j.1478-4408.2010.00256.x

[2]   S. Khorramfar, N. M. Mahmoodi, M. Arami and H. Bahrami, “Oxidation of Dyes from Colored Wastewater Using Activated Carbon/Hydrogen Peroxide,” Desalination, Vol. 279, No. 1-3, 2011, pp. 183-189. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2011.06.005

[3]   H. J. Fan, H. Y. Shu and K. Tajima, “Decolorization of Acid Black 24 by the FeGAC/H2O2 Process,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 128, No. 2-3, 2006, pp. 192-200. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.07.059

[4]   V. P. Santos, M. F. R. Pereira, P. C. C. Faria and J. J. M. Orfao, “Decolourisation of Dye Solutions by Oxidation with H2O2 in the Presence of Modified Activated Carbons,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 162, No. 2-3, 2009, pp. 736-742. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.05.090

[5]   S. G. Huling, P. K. Jones, W. P. Ela and R. G. Arnold, “Fenton-Driven Chemical Regeneration of MTBE-Spent GAC,” Water research, Vol. 39, No. 10, 2005, pp. 2145-2153. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2005.03.027

[6]   S. G. Huling, P. K. Jones and T. R. Lee, “Iron Optimization for Fenton-Driven Oxidation of MTBE-Spent Granular Activated Carbon,” Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 41, No. 11, 2007, pp. 4090-4096. doi:10.1021/es062666k

[7]   E. Kan and S. G. Huling, “Effects of Temperature and Acidic Pre-Treatment on Fenton-Driven Oxidation of MTBE-Spent Granular Activated Carbon,” Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 43, No. 5, 2009, pp. 1493-1499. doi:10.1021/es802360f

[8]   S. G. Huling, E. Kan and C. Wingo, “Fenton-Driven Regeneration of MTBE-Spent Granular Activated Carbon-Effects of Particle Size and Iron Amendment Procedures,” Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, Vol. 89, No. 3-4, 2009, pp. 651-658. doi:10.1016/j.apcatb.2009.02.002

[9]   I. Langmuir, “The Adsorption of Gases on Plane Surfaces of Glass, Mica and Platinum,” Journal of American Chemical Society, Vol. 40, No. 9, 1918, pp. 1361-1403. doi:10.1021/ja02242a004

[10]   H. Freundlich, “Over the Adsorption in Solution,” Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 57, 1906, pp. 385-470.

[11]   S. Lagergren, “About the Theory of So-Called Adsorption of Soluble Substances,” Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar, Vol. 24, No. 4, 1898, pp. 1-39.

[12]   Y. S. Ho and G. McKay, “Pseudo-Second Order Model for Sorption Processes,” Process Biochemistry, Vol. 34, No. 5, 1999, pp. 451-465. doi:10.1016/S0032-9592(98)00112-5

[13]   T. A. Kurniawan and W. H. Lo, “Removal of Refractory Compounds from Stabilized Landfill Leachate Using an Integrated H2O2 Oxidation and Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) Adsorption Treatment,” Water Research, Vol. 43, No. 16, 2009, pp. 4079-4091. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2009.06.060

[14]   F. Raposo, M. A. De La Rubia and R. Borja, “Methylene Blue Number as Useful Indicator to Evaluate the Adsorptive Capacity of Granular Activated Carbon in Batch Mode: Influence of Adsorbate/Adsorbent Mass Ratio and Particle Size,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 165, No. 1-3, 2009, pp. 291-299. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.09.106

[15]   G. G. Stavropoulos and A. A. Zabaniotou, “Production and Characterization of Activated Carbons from Olive-Seed Waste Residue,” Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, Vol. 82, No. 1-2, 2005, pp. 79-85. doi:10.1016/j.micromeso.2005.03.009

[16]   W. J. Weber, “Physiochemical Properties for Water Quality Control,” John Wiley and Sons Inc, New York, 1972.

[17]   E. N. El Qada, S. J. Allen and G. M. Walker, “Adsorption of Basic Dyes from Aqueous Solution onto Activated Carbons,” Chemical Engineering Journal, Vol. 135, No. 3, 2008, pp. 174-184. doi:10.1016/j.cej.2007.02.023

[18]   S. B. Wang, Z. H. Zhu, A. Coomes, F. Haghseresht and G. Q. Lu, “The Physical and Surface Chemical Characteristics of Activated Carbons and the Adsorption of Methylene Blue from Wastewater,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 284, No. 2, 2005, pp. 440-446. doi:10.1016/j.jcis.2004.10.050

[19]   C. Lai and C. Y. Chen, “Removal of Metal Ions and Humic Acid from Water by Iron-Coated Filter Media,” Chemosphere, Vol. 44, No. 5, 2001, pp. 1177-1184. doi:10.1016/S0045-6535(00)00307-6

[20]   C. Moreno-Castilla, “Adsorption of Organic Molecules from Aqueous Solutions on Carbon Materials,” Carbon, Vol. 42, No. 1, 2004, pp. 83-94. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2003.09.022

[21]   B. H. Hameed, I. A. W. Tan and A. L. Ahmad, “Adsorption Isotherm, Kinetic Modeling and Mechanism of 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol on Coconut Husk-Based Activated Carbon,” Chemical Engineering Journal, Vol. 144, No. 2, 2008, pp. 235-244. doi:10.1016/j.cej.2008.01.028

[22]   B. H. Hameed, A. M. Din and A. Ahmad, “Adsorption of Methylene Blue onto Bamboo-Based Activated Carbon: Kinetics and Equilibrium Studies,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 141, No. 3, 2007, pp. 819-825. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.07.049

[23]   B. H. Hameed, A. Ahmad and K. Latiff, “Adsorption of Basic Dye (Methylene Blue) onto Activated Carbon Prepared from Rattan Sawdust,” Dyes and Pigments, Vol. 75, No. 1, 2007, pp. 43-49. doi:10.1016/j.dyepig.2006.05.039

[24]   S. Karagöz, T. Tay, S. Ucar and M. Erdem, “Activated Carbons from Waste Biomass by Sulfuric Acid Activation and Their Use on Methylene Blue Adsorption,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 99, No. 14, 2008, pp. 6214-6222. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2007.12.019

[25]   M. Pérez, F. Torrades, J. A. Garcia-Hortal, X. Domènech and J. Peral, “Removal of Organic Contaminants in Paper Pulp Treatment Effluents under Fenton and Photo-Fenton Conditions,” Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Vol. 36, No. 1, 2002, pp. 63-74. doi:10.1016/S0926-3373(01)00281-8

[26]   J. H. Ramirez, C. A. Costa, L. M. Madeira, G. Mata, M. A. Vicente, M. Rojas-Cervantes, et al., “Fenton-Like Oxidation of Orange II Solutions Using Heterogeneous Catalysts Based on Saponite Clay,” Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Vol. 71, No. 1-2, 2007, pp. 44-56. doi:10.1016/j.apcatb.2006.08.012

[27]   D. Kim, J. K. C. Chen and T. F. Yen, “Naval Derusting Wastewater Containing High Concentration of Iron, Treated in UV Photo-Fenton-Like Oxidation,” Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol. 22, No. 7, 2010, pp. 991-997. doi:10.1016/S1001-0742(09)60209-6

[28]   K. Dutta, S. Mukhopadhyay, S. Bhattacharjee and B. Chaudhuri, “Chemical Oxidation of Methylene Blue Using a Fenton-Like Reaction,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 84, No. 1, 2001, pp. 57-71. doi:10.1016/S0304-3894(01)00202-3

 
 
Top