JMP  Vol.4 No.7 A , July 2013
Dark Particles Answer Dark Energy
Abstract: This paper argues that a hypothetical “dark” particle (a black hole with the reduced Planck mass and arbitrary temperature) gives a simple explanation to the open question of dark energy and has a relic density of only 17% more than the commonly accepted value. By considering an additional near-horizon boundary of the black hole, set by its quantum length, the black hole can obtain an arbitrary temperature. Black-body radiation is still present and fits as the source of the Universe’s missing energy. Support for this hypothesis is offered by showing that a stationary solution to the black hole’s length scale is the same if derived from a quantum analysis in continuous time, a quantum analysis in discrete time, or a general relativistic analysis.
Cite this paper: J. Haller Jr., "Dark Particles Answer Dark Energy," Journal of Modern Physics, Vol. 4 No. 7, 2013, pp. 85-95. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2013.47A1010.

[1]   A. Liddle, “An Introduction to Modern Cosmology,” 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., W. Sussex, 2003.

[2]   P. Peebles and B. Ratra, Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 75, 2003, pp. 559-606. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.75.559

[3]   D. Larson, J. Dunkley, et al., “Seven-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Power Spectra and WMAP-Derived Parameters,” 2010. arXiv:1001.4635v2

[4]   S. E. Rugh and H. Zinkernagel, Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, Vol. 33, 2002, pp. 663-705. doi:10.1016/S1355-2198(02)00033-3

[5]   B. Greene, “The Fabric of the Cosmos,” Vintage Books, New York, 2004.

[6]   L. Papantonopoulos, “Lecture Notes in Physics 720 The Invisible Universe: Dark Matter and Dark Energy,” Springer, Berlin, 2007. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-71013-4

[7]   L. Amendola and S. Tsujikawa, “Dark Energy: Theory and Observations,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2010. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511750823

[8]   S. W. Hawking, Communications in Mathematical Physics, Vol. 43, 1975, pp. 199-220. doi:10.1007/BF02345020

[9]   Feynman, “Lectures on Physics,” Addison-Wesley Publishing, Reading, 1965.

[10]   C. W. Gardiner and P. Zoller, “Quantum Noise,” Springer, Berlin, 2004.

[11]   C. Barcelo, S. Liberati, S. Sonego and M. Visser, Physical Review D, 83, 2011, Article ID: 041501. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.83.041501

[12]   S. A. Hayward, Classical and Quantum Gravity, Vol. 15, 1998, p. 3147. doi:10.1088/0264-9381/15/10/017

[13]   R. Barkana and A. Loeb, Physics Reports, Vol. 349, 2001, pp. 125-238. doi:10.1016/S0370-1573(01)00019-9

[14]   A. R. Liddle and D. H. Lyth, “Cosmological Inflation and Large-Scale Structure,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000. doi:10.1017/CBO9781139175180

[15]   D. F. Walls and G. J. Milburn, “Quantum Optics,” Springer, Berlin, 1994.

[16]   J. Pan, “Email Correspondence,” Fudan University, Shanghai, 2007.

[17]   Reif, “Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics,” McGraw Hill, Boston, 1965.

[18]   R. Kubo, Reports on Progress in Physics, Vol. 29, 1966, p. 255. doi:10.1088/0034-4885/29/1/306

[19]   Forsythe & Wasow, “Finite-Difference Methods for Partial Differential Equations,” John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1960.

[20]   M. Mecklenburg and B. C. Regan, Physical Review Letters, Vol. 106, 2011, Article ID: 116803. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.116803

[21]   Chandrasakhar, Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 15, 1943.

[22]   P. A. M. Dirac, “The Principles of Quantum Mechanics,” 4th Edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1958, p. 262.

[23]   P. Chen, “Generalized Uncertainty Principle and Dark Matter,” Quantum Aspects of Beam Physics, World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, 2004, p. 315.

[24]   R. Minchin, et al., Astrophysics Journal, Vol. 670, 2007, pp. 1056-1064. doi:10.1086/520620

[25]   S. Mashchenko and A. Sills, Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 619, 2005, pp. 243-257. doi:10.1086/426132

[26]   R. J. Adler, H. Mueller and M. L. Perl, “A Terrestrial Search for Dark Contents of the Vacuum, Such as Dark Energy, Using Atom Interferometry,” 2011. arXiv:1101.5626v1

[27]   Bertone & Silk, “Particle Dark Matter: Observations, Models, and Searches,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2010.