The Light-Dark Dual Universe for the Big Bang and Dark Energy

Affiliation(s)

P.O. Box 180661, Utica, USA.

Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences, Kyiv, Ukraine.

P.O. Box 180661, Utica, USA.

Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences, Kyiv, Ukraine.

ABSTRACT

In the proposed light-dark dual universe, the light universe is the observable universe with light and kinetic energy that fueled the Big Bang, and the dark universe without light and kinetic energy has been observed as dark energy since about 9 billion years after the Big Bang. The light-dark dual universe started from the zero-energy universe through the four-stage cyclic transformation. Emerging from the zero-energy universe, the four-stage transformation consists of the 11D (dimensional) positive-negative energy dual membrane universe, the 10D positive-negative energy dual string universe, the 10D positive-negative energy dual particle universe, and the 4D (light)-variable D (dark) positive-negative energy dual particle asymmetrical universe. The transformation can then be reversed back to the zero-energy universe through the reverse four-stage transformation. The light universe is an observable four-dimensional universe started with the inflation and the Big Bang, and the dark universe is a variable dimensional universe from 10D to 4D. The dark universe could be observed as dark energy only when the dark universe turned into a four-dimensional universe. The four-stage transformation explains the four force fields in our universe. The theoretical calculated percentages of dark energy, dark matter, and baryonic matter are 72.8. 22.7, and 4.53, respectively, in nearly complete agreement with observed 72.8, 22.7, and 4.56, respectively. According to the calculation, dark energy started in 4.47 billion years ago in agreement with the observed 4.71 ± 0.98 billion years ago. The zero-energy cyclic universe is based on the space-object structures.

Cite this paper

D. Chung and V. Krasnoholovets, "The Light-Dark Dual Universe for the Big Bang and Dark Energy,"*Journal of Modern Physics*, Vol. 4 No. 7, 2013, pp. 77-84. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2013.47A1009.

D. Chung and V. Krasnoholovets, "The Light-Dark Dual Universe for the Big Bang and Dark Energy,"

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[1] D. Chung and V. Krasnoholovets, Scientific Inquiry, Vol. 8, 2007, pp. 165-182.

[2] M. S. Berman, International Journal of Theoretical Physics, 48, 2009, p. 3278. doi:10.1007/s10773-009-0125-8

[3] A. H. Guth, “The Inflationary Universe,” Perseus Books, Reading, 1997.

[4] S. Hawking, “A Brief History of Time,” Bantam Dell Publishing Group, New York, 1988, p. 129.

[5] P. J. Steinhardt and N. Turok, “Endless Universe,” Doubleday, New York, 2007.

[6] D. Chung and V. Krasnoholovets, Journal of Modern Physics, Vol. 4, 2013, pp. 27-31.

[7] J. Moffat, International Journal of Modern Physics D, Vol. 2, 1993, pp. 351-359. doi:10.1142/S0218271893000246

[8] A. Albrecht and J. Magueijo, Physics Review, Vol. D59, 1999, Article ID: 043516.

[9] J. D. Barrow, Physics Letter B, Vol. 564, 2003, pp. 1-7. doi:10.1016/S0370-2693(03)00573-2

[10] P. S. Wesson, “Space-Time-Matter: Modern Kaluza-Klein Theory,” World Scientific Publishing Company, Singapore, 1999.

[11] T. R. Mongan, General Relativity and Gravitation, Vol. 37, 2005, pp. 967-970. doi:10.1007/s10714-005-0079-y

[12] L. Randall and R. Sundrum, Physical Review Letters, Vol. 83, 1999, pp. 4690-4693. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.83.4690

[13] M. Bounias and V. Krasnoholovets, The International Journal of Systems and Cybernetics, Vol. 32, 2003, pp. 1005-1020.

[14] J. Maldacena, Advances in Theoretical and Mathematical Physics, Vol. 2, 1998, pp. 231-252.

[15] P. J. Steinhardt and N. Turok, Physical Review, Vol. D65, 2002, Article ID: 126003. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.65.126003

[16] M. Bounias and V. Krasnoholovets, The International Journal of Systems and Cybernetics, Vol. 32, No. 7-8, 2003, pp. 945-975.

[17] N. Jarosik, et al., “Seven-Year Wilson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Sky Maps, Systematic Errors, and Basic Results,” 2010. http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr4/pub_papers/sevenyear/basic_results/wmap_7yr_basic_results.pdf

[18] D. Chung, Speculations in Science and Technology, Vol. 20, 1997, pp. 259-268. http://arxiv.org/ftp/hep-th/papers/0111/0111147.pdf doi:10.1023/A:1026433207862

[19] D. Chung, “The Unified Theory of Physics,” 2012. arXiv:hep-th/0201115

[20] T. Padmanabhan, Physics Reports, Vol. 380, 2003, pp. 235-320. doi:10.1016/S0370-1573(03)00120-0

[21] A. G. Riess, et al., Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 607, 2004, pp. 665-687. doi:10.1086/383612