Backgrounds: Tuberculoma is a granulomatous inflammatory process mimicking a neoplasm, both clinically and radiologically. Although those with an infratentorial origin are rare, this disease is still a diagnostic challenge using conventional workup. However, this disease should not be overlooked because it is essentially curable with proper diagnosis and therapy,usually, a Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB) DNA test is performed. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical presentations, CSF results, and images of 11 MTB DNA positive and clinically cured cases of infratentorial tuberculoma. Results: Infratentorial tuberculoma usually deteriorated before antituberculosis treatment (ATT). Magnetic resonance imaging showed space-occupying lesions without specific features, 4 within the cerebellum and 7 within the brainstem. Evidence of systemic tuberculosis was found in only 1 case. Clinical manifestations included various combinations of focal signs and symptoms in the brain stem and cerebellum. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings were also nonspecific. The diagnoses of these cases were based on the positive tests of a nested polymerase chain reaction (N-PCR) assay. Trial therapy with antituberculous drugs resulted in clinical improvement, as documented by MRI in all patients. Conclusions: Infratentorial tuberculoma should be suspected in patients with infratentorial space-occupying lesions who live in geographic areas where tuberculosis is endemic.
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