PSYCH  Vol.1 No.5 , December 2010
Structural Analysis of Factors Influencing the Adjustment Behaviors of Korean Children in the U.S
ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing the adjustment of Korean children who live in the U.S. Specifically, this study examined the following predictor variables: English proficiency, peer relationships, family relationships, and school experiences. Forty seven Korean children who were attending the Korean Language School and their parents participated in this study. Pearson product moment correlations indicated that there was a statistically significant relationship between the adjustment of Korean children who live in the U.S. and their English proficiency, peer relationships, and school experiences. There was no statistically significant relationship between the adjustment of Korean children who live in the U.S. and their family relationships. Additionally, structural equation modeling (SEM) was examined to explore how English proficiency, family relationships, peer relationships, and school experiences may serve as influential factors for adjustment of Korean children who live in the U.S. The resulting model had a good fit, χ2 = 2.02, χ2/df = 1.01, comparative fit index (CFI) = 1.00, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.02, which is small enough to indicate a good fit, and indicated that Korean children’s school experiences had the strongest relationship with their overall adjustment score (β = .73, p < .001). However, the effects of English proficiency and family relationships on adjustment were mediated through school experiences, although it is important to note that English proficiency did not have a positive relationship with school experience (β = -.38, p = .340), but Korean children’s school experiences were positively associated with their English proficiency (β = .68, p < .05).

Cite this paper
nullOh, S. & Shelley, M. (2010). Structural Analysis of Factors Influencing the Adjustment Behaviors of Korean Children in the U.S. Psychology, 1, 386-393. doi: 10.4236/psych.2010.15048.
References
[1]   Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182.

[2]   Bhattacharya, G. (2000). The school adjustment of South Asian immigrant children in the United States. Adolescence, 35, 77-85.

[3]   Canino, I. A., & Spurlock, J. (2000). The influence of culture and multiple social stressors on the culturally diverse child. In I. A. Canino & J. Spurlock (Eds.), Culturally diverse children and adolescents (PP. 7-44). New York: Guil-ford.

[4]   Chang, J., Rhee, S., & Weaver, D. (2006). Characteristics of child abuse in immigrant Korean families and correlates of placement decisions. Child Abuse & Neglect, 30, 881-891.

[5]   Cheng, S. H., & Kuo, W. H. (2000). Family socialization of ethnic identity among Chinese American pre-adolescents. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 31, 463-484.

[6]   Chen, X., Chen, H., & Kaspar, V. (2001). Group social func tioning and individual socioemotional and school adjustment in Chinese children. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 47, 264-299.

[7]   Chiang, L. H. (2000). Teaching Asian American students. The Teacher Educator, 36, 58-69.

[8]   Cho, S. M., & Bae, S. W. (2005). Demography, psychosocial factors, and emotional problems of Korean American adolescents. Adolescence, 40, 533-550.

[9]   Cillessen, A. H. N., & Bellmore, A. D. (1999). Accuracy of social self-perceptions and peer competence in middle childhood. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 45, 650-676.

[10]   Eshel, Y., & Rosenthal-Sokolov, M. (2000). Acculturation attitudes and sociocultural adjustment of sojourner youth in Israel. The Journal of Social Psychology, 140, 677-691.

[11]   Fagen, D. B., Cowen, E. L., Wyman, P. A., & Work, W. C. (1996). Relationships between parent-child relational variables and child test variables in highly stressed urban families. Child Study Journal, 26, 87-108.

[12]   Gonzales, N. A., Hiraga, Y., & Cauce, A. M. (1995). Observing mother-daughter interaction in African-American and Asian-American families. In H. I. McCubbin, E. A. Thompson, A. I. Thompson, & J. E. Fromer (Eds.), Resiliency in African-American families (Vol. 3, pp. 259-285). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

[13]   Hightower, A. D., Cowen, E. L., Spinell, A. P., Lotyczewski, B. S., Guare, J. C., Rohrbeck, C. A., & Brown, L. P. (1987). The Child Rating Scale: The development of a socioemotional self-rating scale for elementary school children. School Psychology Review, 16, 239-255.

[14]   Ho, M. K. (1992a). Asian American Children and Adolescents. In Man Keung, Ho (Ed.), Minority children and adolescents in therapy (pp. 33-54). Newbury Park, CA: SAGE.

[15]   Ho, M. K. (1992b). A transcultural framework for assessment and therapy with ethnic minority children and youth. In Man Keung, Ho (Ed.), Minority children and adolescents in therapy (pp. 7-29). New- bury Park, CA: SAGE.

[16]   James, D. C. S. (1997). Coping with a new society: The unique psychosocial problems of immigrant youth. Journal of School Health, 67, 98-102.

[17]   Jung, W. S. (2000, February 21-26). Cultural influences on ratings of be-havioral and emotional problems, and school adjustment for Korean, Korean American, and Caucasian American children. Paper presented at the National Association of African American Studies & National Association of Hispanic and Latino Studies. Houston, TX.

[18]   Kim, E. J. (2002). The relationship between parental involve ment and children’s educational achievement in the Korean immigrant family. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 33, 529-540.

[19]   Kim, W. J., Kim, L. I., & Rue, D. S. (1997). Korean American children. In G. Johnson-Powell & J. Yamamoto (Eds.), Transcultural child development: Psychological assessment and treatment (pp. 183-207). New York: Wiley.

[20]   Kibria, N. (2002). Becoming Asian American: Second-generation Chinese and Korean American identities. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

[21]   Okagaki, L., & Frensch, P. A. (1995). Parental support for Mexican-American children’s school achievement. In H. I. McCubbin, E. A. Thompson, A. I. Thompson, & J. E. Fromer (Eds.), Resiliency in Native American and immigrant families (Vol. 2, pp. 325-342). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

[22]   Rodd, J. (1996). Children, culture and education. Childhood Education, 72, 325-329.

[23]   Rumbaut, R. G. (1994). The crucible within: Ethnic identity, self-es- teem, and segmented assimilation among children of immigrants. International Migration Review, 28, 748-794.

[24]   Ryu, J. Y. (2004). The social adjustment of three, young, high-achiev- ing Korean-English bilingual students in kindergarten. Early Childhood Education Journal, 32, 165-171.

[25]   Sandhu, D. S., Kaur, K. P., & Tewari, N. (1999). Acculturative experiences of Asian and Pacific Islander Americans: Considerations for counseling and psychotherapy. In D. S. Sandhu (Ed.). Asian and Pacific Islander Americans: Issues and concerns for counseling and psychotherapy (pp. 3-19). Commack, NY: Nova Science.

[26]   Sun, C. K. (1992a). Korean-American adolescents: Parent-child relationship. Long Beach, CA: California State University.

[27]   Simpson, D. D., & McBride, A. A. (1992). Family, friends, and self (FFS) assessment scales for Mexican American youth. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 14, 327-340.

[28]   Taft, R., & Steinkalk, E. (1985). The adaptation of recent soviet immigrants in Australia. In I. R. Lagunes & Y. H. Poortinga (Eds.), From a different perspective: Studies of behavior across cultures (pp. 19-28). Acapulco, Mexico: Swets & Zeitlainger B.V.

[29]   U.S. Bureau of the Census. (2001). Statistical abstract of the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Of-fice.

[30]   Vergne, A. R. (1982). A study of the positive adjustment of foreign born children to a new school and culture. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing.

[31]   Yu, K. H., & Kim, L. I. C. (1983). The growth and development of Korean-American children. In G. J. Powell (Ed.), The psychosocial development of minority group children (pp. 147-158). New York: Brunner/Mazel.

 
 
Top