OJG  Vol.3 No.3 , July 2013
Tethys Subduction History in Caucasus Region

Caucasus region is located in the center of Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. It is made of two Great and Lesser Caucasus fold thrust belts and an intramountain area called Trans caucasus or Mid caucasus. This region contains a system of oceanic crust subduction, island arcs, volcanic arcs, back arc basins and rifts. The earthquakes of 60 km in depth are the evidences of deep brittle zone under Great Caucasus. Without considering Prototethys, Paleotethys and Neotethys Oceans, the tectonic situation of this region is not possible to study. The oceanic lithosphere under oceanic lithosphere subduction made Trans caucasus containing a trans crust. The subduction of Prototethys under Baltic made Great Caucasus and the subduction of Paleotethys under Iran, made Lesser Caucasus. The earth sutures caused by the closure of Prototethys and Paleotethys Oceans are clear in the region. The direction of Paleotethys subduction in lesser Caucasus is a considerable issue. Most of the existing evidences prove the southward direction which is different from Paleotethys subduction in Alborz of Iran. The lithospheric type of Midcaucasus is different from Caspian. Midcaucasus plays the role of determining collision type in the region.

Cite this paper
M. Manafi, M. Arian, S. Raeesi and A. Solgi, "Tethys Subduction History in Caucasus Region," Open Journal of Geology, Vol. 3 No. 3, 2013, pp. 222-232. doi: 10.4236/ojg.2013.33026.
[1]   J. Dercourt, L. E. Ricu, S. H. Adamia, G. Gsaszar, H. Funk, J. Lefeld, M. Rakus, M. Sandulescu, A. Tollmann and P. Tchoumachenko, “Anisian to Oligocene Paleogeography of the European Margin of Tethys (Geneva to Baku), Evolution of the Northern Margin of Tethys,” Mémoire de la Société Géologique de France, Vol. 154, 1990, pp.159-160.

[2]   G. M. Stampfli, “Tethyan Oceans,” Geological Society of London, Vol. 173, 2000, pp. 1-23. doi:10.1144/GSL.SP.2000.173.01.01

[3]   E. Barrier and B. Vrielynck, “Paleotectonic Maps of the Middle East,” Middle East Basins Evolution Programme, CGMW, Atlas, 2008, Maps, pp. 1-14.

[4]   P. R. Sharlan, R. Archer, D. M. Casey, R. B. Davies, S. H. Hall, A. P. Heward, A. D. Hurbury and M. D. Simmons, “Arabian Plate Sequence Stratigraphy,” GeoArabia Special Publication (Gulf Petrolink), Bahrain, 2001, p. 371.

[5]   V. A. Bykadorov, V. A. Bush, O. A. Fedorenko, I. B. Filippova, N. V. Miletenko, V. N. Puchkov, A. V. Smirnov, B. S. Uzhkenov and Y. A. Volozh, “Ordovician-Permian Palaeogeography of Central Eurasia: Development of Palaeozoic Petroleum-Bearing Basins,” Journal of Petroleum Geology, Vol. 26, No. 3, 2003, pp. 325-350. doi:10.1111/j.1747-5457.2003.tb00033.x

[6]   P. A. Ziegler, S. Cloetingh, R. Guiraud and G. M. Stampfli, “Peritethyan Platforms: Constraints on Dynamics of Rifting and Basin Inversion,” Memoires du Museum National d Historie Naturelle, Vol. 6, 2001, pp. 51-108.

[7]   G. M. Stampfli, J. Mosar, P. Favre, A. Pillevuit and J. C. Vaney, “Permo Mesozoic Evolution of the Western Tethys Realm: The Neotethys East Mediterranean Basin connection,” Memoires du Museum National d Historie Naturelle, Vol. 186, 2001, pp. 51-108.

[8]   G. M. Stampfli and G. D. Borel, “A Plate Tectonic Model for the Paleozoic and Mesozoic Constrained by Dynamic Plate Boundaries and Restored Synthetic Oceanic Isochrones,” Earth and Planetary science Letters, Vol. 196, No. 1-2, 2002, pp.17-33. doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(01)00588-X

[9]   J. F. Von Raumer, G. M. Stamfli, G. Borel and F. Bussy, Organization of Pre-Variscan Basement Areas at the North Gondwana Margin,” International Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 91, No. 1, 2002, pp. 35-52. doi:10.1007/s005310100200

[10]   J. F. VonRaumer, G. M. Stampfli and F. Bussy, “Gondwana-Derived Microcontinents—The Constituents of the Variscan and Alpine Collisional Orogens, Tectonophysics, Vol. 365, No. 1-4, 2003, pp. 7-22. doi:10.1016/S0040-1951(03)00015-5

[11]   I. Metcalfe, “The Ancient Tethys Oceans of Asia: How many? How old? How deep? How wide?” UNEAC Asia papers, No. 1, 1999, pp. 1-9.

[12]   J. Glonka, “Plate Tectonic Evolution of the Southern Margin of Eurasia in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic,” Tectonophysics, Vol. 381, No. 1-4, 2004, pp. 235-273. doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2002.06.004

[13]   D. A. Ruban, M. Al Husseini and Y. Iwasaki, “Review of Middle East Paleozoic Plate Tectonics,” GeoArabia, Vol. 12, No. 3, 2007, pp. 35-56.

[14]   Sh. Adamia, G. Zakaridze, T. Chkhatua, M. Sadradze, M. Tseretelir, A. Chabukiani and A. Gventsadzeh, “Geology of the Caucasus: A Review,” Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 20, No. 5, 2011, pp. 489-544.

[15]   M. Rustamov, “South Caspian Basin-Geodynamic Events and Processes,” Institute of Geology NASA, Baki, 2004, pp. 46-71.

[16]   L. A. Buryakovsky, G. V. Chilingar and F. Aminzadeh, “Petroleum Gology of the South Caspian Basin,” Gulf Professional Publishing, Houston, 2001.

[17]   A. A. Ali-Zade, V. E. Khain and A. D. Ismail-Zade, “The Saatly Ultra-deep Well, The Study of Deep Structure of the Kura Intermontane Depression According to the Data of the Drilling of the Saatly Ultra-Deep Well SG-1,” Nafta-Press, Baku, 1999.

[18]   M. F. Brunet, M. V. Korotaev, A. V. Ershov and A. M. Nikishin, “The South Caspian Basin: A Review of Its Evolution from Subsidence Modeling,” Journal of Sedimentary Geology, Vol. 156, No. 1-4, 2003, pp. 119-148. doi:10.1016/S0037-0738(02)00285-3

[19]   M. B. Allen, S. J. Vincent, G. I. Alsop, A. Ismail zadeh and R. Flecker, “Late Cenozoic Deformation in the South Caspian Region: Effects of a Rigid Basement Block within a Collision Zone,” Journal of Tectonophysics, Vol. 366, No. 3-4, 2003, pp. 223-239. doi:10.1016/S0040-1951(03)00098-2

[20]   C. Ruppel and M. McNutt, “Regional Compensation of the Greater Caucasus Mountains Based on an Analysis of Bouguer Gravity Data,” Earth and Planetary Science, Vol. 98, No. 3-4, 1990, pp. 360-379. doi:10.1016/0012-821X(90)90037-X

[21]   A. M. C. Sengor, “A New Model for the Late Palaeozoic -Mesozoic Tectonic Evolution of Iran and Implications for Oman,” Geology Society of London, Special Publication, No. 49, 1990, pp. 797-831.

[22]   G. Stampfli, “The Intra-Alpine Terrain: A Palaeotethyan Remnat in the Alpine Variscides,” Ecloga Geologicae Helvetiae, Vol. 89, 1996, pp. 12-42.

[23]   J. Von Raumer, “The Palaeozoic Evolution in the Alps: From Gondwana to Pangea,” Geologische Rundshau, Vol. 87, No. 3, 1998, pp. 407-435. doi:10.1007/s005310050219

[24]   L. R. M. Cocks and T. H. Torsvik, “Earth Geography from 500 to 400 Million Years Ago: A Faunal and Palaeomagnetic Review,” Journal of the Geological Society of London, Vol. 159, No. 6, 2002, pp. 631-644. doi:10.1144/0016-764901-118

[25]   G. M. Stampfli, J. von raumer and G. D. Borel, “The Palaeozoic Evolution of Pre-Variscan Terranes: From Peri Gondwana to the Variscan Collision,” Geological Society of America, Special Paper, No. 364, 2002, pp. 263-280.

[26]   T. H. Torsvik and L. R. M. Cocks, “Earth Geography from 400-250 Ma: A Palaeomagnetic, Faunal and Facies Review,” Journal of Geology Society of London, Vol. 161, No. 4, 2004, pp. 555-572. doi:10.1144/0016-764903-098

[27]   B. A. Natal’in and A. M. C. sengor, “Late Palaeozoic to Triassic Evolution of the Turan and Scythian Platforms; The Pre-History of the Palaeo-Tethyan Closure,” Tectonophysics, Vol. 404, No. 3-4, 2005, pp.175-202. doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2005.04.011

[28]   P. Xypolias, W. Dorr and G. Zulauf, “Late Carboniferous Plutonism within the Pre-Alpine Basement of the External Hellenides (Kithira,Greece): Evidence from U-Pb Zircon Dating,” Journal of the Geological Society of London, Vol. 163, No. 3, 2006, pp. 539-547. doi:10.1144/0016-764904-114

[29]   T. Buday, “The Regional Geology of Iraq: Tectonism, Magmatism and Metamorphism,” State Organization for Minerals, Baghdad, 1980, 445 p.

[30]   M. Berberian and G. C. P. King, “Towards the Paleogeography and Tectonic Evolution of Iran,” Canadian Journal of the Earth Sciences, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1981, pp. 210-265. doi:10.1139/e81-019

[31]   P. Courjault-Rade, F. Debrenne and A. Gandian, “Palaeogeographic and Geodynamic evolution of the Gondwana Continental margins during the Cambrian,” Terra Nova, Vol. 4, No. 6, 1992, pp. 657-667. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3121.1992.tb00615.x

[32]   L. R. M. Cocks, “Ordovician and Silurian Global Geography,” Journal of the Geological Society of London, Vol. 158, No. 2, 2001, pp. 197-210. doi:10.1144/jgs.158.2.197

[33]   R. A. Fortey and L. R. M. Cocks, “Palaeontological Evidence Bearing on Global Ordovician-Silurian Continental Reconstruction,” Earth-science Reviews, Vol. 61, No. 3-4, 2003, pp. 245-307. doi:10.1016/S0012-8252(02)00115-0

[34]   C. R. Scotese, “A Continental Drift Flipbook,” Journal of Geology, Vol. 112, No. 6, 2004, pp. 729-741. doi:10.1086/424867

[35]   D. Avigad, A. Sandler, K. Kolodner, R. J.stern, M. Mc Williams, N. Miller and M. Beyth, “Mass-Production of Cambro-Ordovician Quartz-Rich Sandstone as a Consequence of Chemical Weathering of Pan-African Terranes: Environmental Implications,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 240, No. 3-4, 2005, pp. 818-826. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2005.09.021

[36]   I. P. Gamkrelidze, “Terranes of the Caucasus and Adjacent Areas,” Bulletin of Georgian Academy of Science, Vol. 155, No. 3, 1997, pp. 391-394.

[37]   E. Tawadros, D. A. Ruban and M. Efendyeva, “Evolution of NE Africa and the Greater Caucasus: Common Pattern and Petroleum Potential, the Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologist, the Canadian Society of Exploration Geophysicist,” The Canadian Well Logging Society Joint Convention, Calgary, 15-18 May 2006, pp. 531-538.

[38]   D. A. Ruban, “Diversity Changes of the Brachiopods in the Northern Caucasus: A Brief Overview,” Acta Geologica Hungarica, Vol. 49, No. 1, 2006, pp. 57-71. doi:10.1556/AGeol.49.2006.1.4

[39]   D. S. Kizevalter and V. N. Robinson, “Devonskaja Sistema Srtatigrafija SSSR,” Nedra, Moscow, 1973, pp. 220-229.

[40]   F. Arthaud and P. Matte, “Late Paleozoic Strike-Slip Faulting in Southern Europe and Northern Africa: Result of a Right-Lateral Shear Zone between the Appalachian and the Urals,” Geological Society of America Bulletin, Vol. 88, No. 9, 1977, pp. 1305-1320. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1977)88<1305:LPSFIS>2.0.CO;2

[41]   M. T. Swanson, “Preliminary Model for an Early Transform History in Central Atlantic Rifting,” Geology, Vol. 10, No. 6, 1982, pp. 317-320. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1982)10<317:PMFAET>2.0.CO;2

[42]   A. E. Rapalini and H. Vizan, “Evidence of Intrapangaea Movements in Gondwanaland, Comptes Rendus. XII ICC-p,” GeoArabia, Journal of the Middle East Petroleum Geosciences, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1993, pp. 405-434.

[43]   L. A. Lawver, A. Grantz and L. M. Gahagan, “Plate Kinematic Evolution of the Present Arctic Region since the Ordovician,” Geological Society of America, Special Paper, Vol. 360, 2002, pp. 333-358.

[44]   G. B. Vai, “Development of the Palaeogeography of Pangaea from Late Carboniferous to Early Permian,” Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Vol. 196, No. 1-2, 2003, pp. 125-155. doi:10.1016/S0031-0182(03)00316-X

[45]   Z. Garfunkel, “Origin of the Eastern Mediterranean Basin: A Reevaluation,” Tectonophysics, Vol. 391, No. 1-4, 2004, pp. 11-34.

[46]   D. A. Ruban and S. Yoshioka, “Late Paleozoic Early Mesozoic Tectonic Activity within the Donbass (Russian Platform),” Trabajos de Geolga, Vol. 1, No. 25, 2005, pp. 101-104.

[47]   M. B. Lordkipanitze, S. H. Adamia and B. Z. Asanidze, “Paleookeanologija,” 27 Mezhdunarodnyj Geologitscheskij Congress, Doklady Nedra, Moskva, 1984, pp. 72-83.

[48]   I. P. Gamkrelidze, “Geodynamic Evolution of the Caucasus and Adjacent Areas in Alpine Time,” Tectonophysics, Vol. 127, No. 3-4, 1986, pp. 261-277. doi:10.1016/0040-1951(86)90064-8

[49]   S. H. Adamia and I. Shavishvili, “Root Zone of the Ophiolite Nappes of the Western Caucasus,” Doklady of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Vol. 267, 1982, pp. 1424-1425.

[50]   A. Belov and V. O. L. Omelchenko, “Late Variscan and Post-Variscan Thrusts in the Pre-Upper Jurassic Basement of the Northern Caucasus,” Izvestia VUZ (Institute of Higher Education), Series Geological and Mineral Resources, Vol. 9, 1986, pp. 14-20.

[51]   M. Somin, “Main Features of Structures of the Pre-Alpine Basement of the Great Caucasus,” Rocks Complexes and Geodynamics of the Main Stages of Evolution of the Great Caucasus, GEOS, Moscow, 2007, pp. 10-52.

[52]   S. H. Adamia, M. Abesadze, M. Kekelia, T. Chkhotua and I. Shavishvili, “Metaophiolites, Island-Arc Complexes and Blastomilonites of the Main Range of the Great Caucasus,” Doklady of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Vol. 241, 1978, pp. 1139-1142.

[53]   S. H. Adamia, B. Asanidze, T. Chkhotua, M. Kekelia, I. Shavishvili, G. Tsimakuridze and G. Zakariadze, “Fragments of Paleo-Tethyan Terranes in the Crystalline Core of the Great Caucasus,” Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Eastern Mediterranean Geology, Thessaloniki, 14-20 April 2004, pp. 233-236.

[54]   I. Kariakin and V. O. L. Aristov, “On the Age and Geological Position of ‘Exotic Rocks’ of Rogachai Zone (Lesser Caucasus),” Doklady of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Vol. 311, 1990, pp. 1189-1193.

[55]   B. Majidi, “The Ultrabasic Lava Flows of Mashhad, North-East Iran,” Geological Magazine, Vol. 118, No. 1, 1979, pp. 49-58. doi:10.1017/S0016756800024791

[56]   M. Davoudzadeh and K. Shmidt, “Contribution to the Paleogeography and Stratigraphy of the Upper Triassic to the Middle Jurassic of Iran,” Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Palaontologie, Vol. 162, No. 2, 1981, pp. 137-163.

[57]   N. Lyberis and G. Manby, “Oblique to Orthogonal Convergence across the Turan Block in the Post-Miocene,” AAPG Bulletin, Vol. 83, No. 7, 1999, pp. 1135-1160.

[58]   A. Zanchi, S. Zanchetta, F. Berra, M. Mattei, E. Garzanti, I. Villa, S. Molinex, A. Nawab and J. Sabouri, “The Eo-Cimmerian Collision between North Iranian and the Southern Portion of Eurasia: New Constraints from the Alborz-Kope Dag Regions,” International Symposium on Middle East Basins Evolution, Paris, 4-5 December 2007, pp. 17-18.

[59]   A. M. C. Sengor and Y. Yilmaz, “Tethyan Evolution of Turkey: A Plate Tectonic Approach,” Tectonophysics, Vol. 75, No. 3-4, 1981, pp. 181-241. doi:10.1016/0040-1951(81)90275-4

[60]   Y. Rolland, S. Billo, M. Corsini, M. Sosson and G. Galoyan, “Blueschists of the Amassia-Stepanavan Suture Zone (Armenia): Linking Tethys Subduction History from E-Turkey to W-Iran,” International Journal of Earth Science, Vol. 98, No. 3, 2009, pp. 533-550. doi:10.1007/s00531-007-0286-8

[61]   T. Danelian, G. Asatryan, M. Sosson, G. Galoyan, A. Avagyan, L. Sahakyan and Y. Rolland, “New Paleontological (Radiolarian) Age Constraints for the Sedimentary Cover of Ophiolites in the Lesser Caucasus (Armenia),” International Symposium on Middle East Basins Evolution, Paris, 4-5 December 2007, p. 47.

[62]   O. G. Bogdanovski, G. S. Zakariadze, S. F. Karpenko, S. K. Zlobin, V. M. Pukhovskaya and V. Yu. Amelin, “Sm-Nd Age of the Gabbroids of a Tholeiitic Series of the Ophiolites of the Sevan-Akera Zone of the Lesser Caucasus,” Academy of Sciences Russia, Vol. 327, 1992, pp. 566-569.

[63]   G. Galoyan, Y. Rolland, M. Sosson, M. Corsini and R. Melkonyan, “Evidence for superimposed MORB, Oceanic Plateau and Volcanic Arc Series in the Lesser Caucasus (Stepanavan, Armenia),” Comptes Rendus Geoscience, Vol. 339, No. 7, 2007, pp. 482-492.

[64]   M. Alavi, “Sedimentary and Structural Characteristics of the Paleo-Tethys Remnants in Northeastern Iran,” Geological Society of America Bulletin, Vol. 103, No. 8, 1991, pp. 983-992. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1991)103<0983:SASCOT>2.3.CO;2

[65]   S. P. Rice, A. H. F. Robertson and T. Ustaomer, “Late Cretaceous-Early Cenozoic Tectonic Evolution of the Eurasian Active Margin in the Central and Eastern Pontides, Northern Turkey,” Geological Society, Special Publications, Vol. 260, 2006, pp. 413-445.

[66]   S. P. Rice, A. H. F. Robertson, T. Ustaomer, N. Inan and K. Tasli, “Late Cretaceous—Early Eocene Tectonic Development of the Tethyan Suture Zone in the Erzincan Area, Eastern Pontides, Turkey,” Geological Magazine, Vol. 146, No. 4, 2009, pp. 567-590. doi:10.1017/S0016756809006360

[67]   S. H. Adamia, M. Lordkipanidze and G. Zakariadze, “Evolution of an Active Continental Margin as Exemplified by the Alpine History of the Caucasus,” Tectonophysics, Vol. 40, No. 3-4, 1977, pp. 183-199.

[68]   D. Boztug, “Timing of Magnetic Episodes in the Composite Kackar Batholiths, Eastern Pontides, Turkey,” 2nd International Symposium on the Geology of the Black Sea region (ISGB), Ankara, 5-9 October 2009, pp. 35-36.

[69]   P. F. Vernant, J. Nilforoushan, R. Chery, Y. Bayer, F. Djamour, H. Masson, J. Nankali, F. Ritz, M. Sedighi and F. Tavakoli, “Deciphering Oblique Shortening of Central Alborz in Iran using Geodetic Data,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 223, No. 1-2, 2004, pp. 177-185. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2004.04.017

[70]   Z. M. Hisarli, “New Paleomagnetic Constraints on the Late Cretaceous and Early Cenozoic Tectonic History of the Eastern Pontides,” Journal of Geodynamics, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2010, pp. 114-128. doi:10.1016/j.jog.2010.12.004

[71]   H. Kozur, “The Evolution of the Meliata-Hallstatt Ocean and Its Significance for the Early Evolution of the Eastern Alps and Western Carpathians,” Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Vol. 87, No. 1-4, 1991, pp. 109-130. doi:10.1016/0031-0182(91)90132-B

[72]   H. Kozur and R. Mock, “New Paleogeographic and Tectonic Interpretations in the Slovakian Carpathians and Their Implications for Correlations with the Eastern Alps and Other Parts of the Western Tethys: Part II. Inner Western Carpathians,” Mineralia Slovaca, Vol. 26, 1997, pp. 164-209.

[73]   U. G. Wortmann, H. Weissert, H. Funk and J. Hauck, “Alpine Plate Kinematics Revisited: The Adria Problem,” Tectonics, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2001, pp. 134-147.

[74]   J. Golonka, M. I. Ross and C. R. Scotese, “Phanerozoic Paleogeographic and Paleoclimatic Modeling Maps,” Memoir-Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1994, pp. 1-47.

[75]   A. M. C. Sengor and B. A. Natalin, “Paleotectonics of Asia: Fragment of a Synthesis,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1996.

[76]   A. L. Knipper, A. Ya. Sharaskin and A. I. Voznesenskii, “Ophiolite Clastic Breccias of the Lesser Caucasus: Structural Features and Origin,” Geotectonics, Vol. 35, No. 3, 2001, pp. 199-206.

[77]   A. L. Knipper and S. D. Sokolov, “Pre-Upper Senonian Tectonic Sheets in the Lesser Caucasus,” Geotectonics, Vol. 1, No. 6, 1974, pp. 357-361.

[78]   S. A. Adamia, “The Caucasus Oil and Gas Province,” Earth Science and Resources Institute, Vol. 7, No. 1-2, 1991, pp. 53-74.

[79]   A. Saintot, M. Brunet, F. Yakovlev, M. Sebrier, R. Stephenson, A. Ershov, F. Chalot-Prat and T. McCann, “The Mesozoic-Cenozoic Tectonic Evolution of the Greater Caucasus,” Geological Society, London, Memoirs, Vol. 32, No. 1, 2006, pp. 277-289.

[80]   S. Vincent, M. Allen, A. Ismail-Zadeh, R. Flecker, K. Foland and M. Simmons, “Insights from the Talysh of Azerbaijan into the Paleogene Evolution of the South Caspian Region,” Geological Society of America Bulletin, Vol. 117, No. 11-12, 2005, pp. 1513-1533. doi:10.1130/B25690.1

[81]   V. O. L. Agamalian, “The Lesser Caucasus Earth Crust Formation and Evolution in the Collision Zone of Paleo-Tethys,” Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Eastern Mediterranean Geology, Thessaloniki, 14-20 April 2004, pp. 17-20.

[82]   R. S. Nadirov, E. Bagirov, M. Tagiyev and I. Lerche, “Flexural Plate Subsidence, Sedimentation Rates, and Structural Development of the Super-deep South Caspian Basin,” Marine and Petroleum Geology, Vol. 14, No. 4, 1997, pp. 383-400. doi:10.1016/S0264-8172(96)00054-2

[83]   K. Priestley, C. Baker and J. Jackson, “Implications of Earth-Quake Focal Mechanism Data for the Active Tectonics of the South Caspian Basin and Surrounding Regions,” Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 118, No. 1, 1994, pp. 111-141.

[84]   F. Masson, Y. Djamour, S. Van Gorp, J. Chery, M. Tatar, F. Tavakoli, H. Nankali and P. Vernant, “Extension in NW Iran Driven by the Motion of the South Caspian Basin,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 252, No. 1-2, 2006, pp. 180-188. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.09.038

[85]   R. E. Reilinger, S. C. McClusky, B. J. Souter, M. W. Hamburger, M. T. Prilepin, A. Mishin, T. Guseva and S. Balassanian, “Preliminary Estimates of Plate Convergence in the Caucasus Collision Zone from Global Positioning System Measurements,” Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 24, No. 14, 1997, pp. 1815-1818. doi:10.1029/97GL01672

[86]   S. McClusky, S. Balassanian, A. Barka, C. Demir, S. Ergintav, I. Georgiev, O. Gurkan, M. Hamburger, K. Hurst, H. Kahle, K. Kastens, G. Kekelidze, R. King, V. O. L. Kotzev, O. Lenk, S. Mahmoud, A. Mishin, M. Nadariya, A. Ouzounis, D. Paradissis, Y. Peter, M. Prilepin, R. Relinger, I. Sanli. H. Seeger, A. Tealeb, M. N. Toksoz and G. Veis, “Global Positioning System Constraints on Plate Kinematics and Dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean and Caucasus,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 105, No. B3, 2000, pp. 5695-5719.

[87]   L. P. Zonenshain and X. Pichon, “Deep Basins of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea as Remnants of Mesozoic Back-Arc Basins,” Tectonophysics, Vol. 123, No. 1-4, 1986, pp. 181-211. doi:10.1016/0040-1951(86)90197-6