OJAS  Vol.3 No.3 , July 2013
Effects of prepartal oronasal administration of lipopolysaccharide on milk composition and productivity of transition Holstein dairy cows
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of repeated oronasal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on milk composition and the overall productive performance of dairy cows. One hundred pregnant Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to two treatment groups (n = 50). 30 cows out of 100 were selected for intensive sampling (n = 15) starting at 28 d before parturition. Cows were administered orally and nasally with 2 and 1 mL of saline solution, respectively (control), or saline solution containing 3 doses of LPS from Escherichia coli 0111:B4 as follows: 1) 0.01 μg/kg body weight (BW) on d ﹣28, 2) 0.05 μg/kg BW on d ﹣25 and ﹣21, and 3) 0.1 μg/kg BW on d ﹣18 and ﹣14. Daily feed intake and milk production were recorded for each cow during the first 28 d postpartum. Milk samples were obtained once per week and analyzed for various milk components. Overall, results indicated that treatment did not affect feed intake, milk yield, milk efficiency, fat content, fat yield, protein content, protein yield, lactose content, lactose yield, milk urea nitrogen (MUN), total solid contents, fat-corrected milk (FCM), and energy-corrected milk (ECM; P > 0.05). However, milk somatic cell count (SCC) tended to be lower in the treated cows (P < 0.10). Treated primiparous cows showed tendencies for better milk efficiency (P < 0.10), milk-fat content (P = 0.09), and total solid contents (P = 0.06). There was a treatment by week interaction for milk energy (P = 0.03), and tendencies for FCM, ECM, lactose content, and milk efficiency (P < 0.10) with greater values in the treated primiparous animals. Altogether, results of this study showed that oronasal LPS challenges slightly modulated milk composition of periparturient dairy cows.
Cite this paper: Iqbal, S. , Zebeli, Q. , Mansmann, D. , Dunn, S. and Ametaj, B. (2013) Effects of prepartal oronasal administration of lipopolysaccharide on milk composition and productivity of transition Holstein dairy cows. Open Journal of Animal Sciences, 3, 200-209. doi: 10.4236/ojas.2013.33030.

[1]   Oliver, S.P. and Calvinho, L.F. (1995) Influence of inflammation on mammary gland metabolism and milk composition. Journal of Animal Science, 73, 18-33.

[2]   Zebeli, Q. and Ametaj, B.N. (2009) Relationships between rumen lipopolysaccharide and mediators of inflammatory response with milk fat production and efficiency in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 92, 3800-3809. doi:10.3168/jds.2009-2178

[3]   Wenz, J.R., Barrington, G.M., Garry, F.B., McSweeney, K.D., Dinsmore, R.P., Goodell, G. and Callan, R.J. (2001) Bacteremia associated with naturally occuring acute coliform mastitis in dairy cows. Journal of American Veterinary Medicine Association, 219, 976-981. doi:10.2460/javma.2001.219.976

[4]   Ametaj, B.N., Zebeli, Q., Iqbal, S. and Dunn, S.M. (2012) Meeting the challenges of improving health in periparturient dairy cows. WCDS Advances in Dairy Technology, 24, 287-317.

[5]   Ametaj, B.N., Zebeli, Q. and Iqbal, S. (2010b) Nutrition, microbiota, and endotoxin-related diseases in dairy cows. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 39, 433-444.

[6]   Dong, G., Shimin, S., Wu, Y., Lei, C., Zhou, J. and Zhang, S. (2011) Diet-induced bacterial immunogens in the gastrointestinal tract of dairy cows: Impacts on immunity and metabolism. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 53, 48. doi:10.1186/1751-0147-53-48

[7]   Emmanuel, D.G.V., Madsen, K.L., Churchill, T.A., Dunn, S.M. and Ametaj, B.N. (2007) Acidosis and lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli B:055 cause hyperpermeability of rumen and colon tissues. Journal of Dairy Science, 90, 5552-5557. doi:10.3168/jds.2007-0257

[8]   Pekala, P.H., Kawakami, M., Angus, C.W., Lane, M.D. and Cerami, A. (1983) Selective inhibition of synthesis of enzymes for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis by an endotoxin-induced mediator from exudates cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 80, 2743-2747. doi:10.1073/pnas.80.9.2743

[9]   Lopez-Soriano, F.J. and Williamson, D.H. (1994) Acute effects of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) on tissue lipid metabolism in the lactating rat. The role of delivery of intestinal glucose. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 141, 113-120. doi:10.1007/BF00926174

[10]   Khovidhunkit, W., Kim, M.S., Memon, R.A., Shigenaga, J.K., Moser, A.H., Feingold, K.R. and Grunfeld, C. (2004) Effects of infection and inflammation on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism: Mechanisms and consequences to the host. Journal of Lipid Research, 45, 1169-1196. doi:10.1194/jlr.R300019-JLR200

[11]   Shuster, D.E., Harmon, R.J., Jackson, J.A. and Hemken, R.W. (1991) Suppression of milk production during endotoxin-induced mastitis. Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 3763-3774. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78568-8

[12]   McFadden, T.B., Akers, R.M. and Capuco, A.V. (1988) Relationship of milk proteins in blood with somatic cell counts in milk of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 71, 826-834. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(88)79623-X

[13]   Hogan, J.S., Weiss, W.P., Todhunter, D.A., Smith, K.L. and Schoenberger, P.S. (1992) Efficacy of an Escherichia coli J5 mastitis vaccine in an experimental challenge trial. Journal of Dairy Science, 75, 415-422. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(92)77777-7

[14]   Neutra, M.R. and Kozlowski, P.A. (2006) Mucosal vaccines: The promise and the challenge. Nature Reviews Immunology, 6, 148-158. doi:10.1038/nri1777

[15]   Lohuis, J.A.C.M., Schukken, Y.H., Verheijden, J.H.M., Brand, A. and Van Miert, A. (1990) Effect of severity of systemic signs during the acute phase of experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis on milk production losses. Journal of Dairy Science, 73, 333-341. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(90)78678-X

[16]   Schmitz, S., Pfaffl, M.W., Meyer, H.H.D. and Bruckmaier, R.M. (2004) Short-term changes of mRNA expression of various inflammatory factors and milk proteins in mammary tissue during LPS induced mastitis. Domestic Animal Endocrinology, 26, 111-126. doi:10.1016/j.domaniend.2003.09.003

[17]   Beutler, B. and Rietschel, E.T. (2003) Innate immune sensing and its roots: The story of endotoxin. Nature Reviews Immunology, 3, 169-176. doi:10.1038/nri1004

[18]   Petzl, Suojala, L., Orro, T., Jarvinen, H., Saatsi, J. and Pyorala, S. (2008) Acute phase response in two consecutive experimentally induced E. coli intramammary infection in dairy cows. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 50, 18. doi:10.1186/1751-0147-50-18

[19]   Shuster, D.E. and Harmon, R.J. (1991) Lactating cows become partially refractory to frequent intra-mammary endotoxin infusions: Recovery of milk yield despite a persistently high somatic cell count. Research in Veterinary Science, 51, 272-277. doi:10.1016/0034-5288(91)90077-2

[20]   Ametaj, B.N., Sivaraman, S., Dunn, S.M. and Zebeli, Q. (2012) Repeated oral administration of lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli 0111:B4 modulated humoral immune responses in periparturient dairy cows. Innate Immunity, 18, 638-647. doi:10.1177/1753425911434851

[21]   Canadian Council on Animal Care (1993) Guide to the care and use of experimental animals. 2nd Edition, CCAC, Ottawa.

[22]   NRC (2001) Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle. 7th Edition, National Academies Press, Washington DC, 381.

[23]   Hill, A.W. (1981) Factors influencing the outcome of Escherichia coli mastitis in the dairy cow. Research in Veterinary Science, 31, 107-112.

[24]   Guidry, A.J., Ost, M., Mather, I.H., Shainline, W.E. and Weinland, B.T. (1983) Sequential response of milk leukocytes, albumin, immunoglobulins, monovalent ions, citrate, and lactose in cows given infusions of Escherichia coli endotoxin into the mammary gland. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 44, 2262-2267.

[25]   Erskine, R.J., Eberhart, R.J., Grasso, P.J. and Scholz, R.W. (1989) Induction of Escherichia coli mastitis in cows fed selenium-deficient or selenium-supplemented diets. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 50, 2093-2100.

[26]   Carroll, E.J., Schalm, O.W. and Lasmanis, J. (1964) Experimental coliform (Aerobacter aerogenes) mastitis: Characteristics of the endotoxin and its role in pathogenesis. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 25, 720-726.

[27]   Lengemann, F.W. and Pitzrick, M. (1986) Effects of endotoxin on mammary secretion of lactating cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 69, 1250-1258. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(86)80531-8

[28]   Mattila, T. and Frost, A.J. (1989) Induction by endotoxin of the inflammatory response in the lactating and dry bovine mammary gland. Research in Veterinary Science, 46, 238-240.

[29]   Lehtolainen, T., Suominen, S., Kutila, T. and Pyorala, S. (2003) Effect of intramammary Escherichia coli endotoxin in earlyvs. late-lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 86, 2327-2333. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73825-9

[30]   Morimoto, K., Kanda, N., Shinde, S. and Isobe, N. (2012) Effect of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli vaccine on innate immune function of bovine mammary gland infused with lipopolysaccharide. Journal of Dairy Science, 95, 5067-5074. doi:10.3168/jds.2012-5498

[31]   Sweet, M.J. and Hume, D.A. (1996) Endotoxin signal transduction in macrophages. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 60, 8-26.

[32]   Iqbal, S., Terrill, S.J., Zebeli, Q., Mazzolari, A., Dunn, S.M., Yang, W.Z. and Ametaj, B.N. (2012) Treating barley grain with lactic acid and heat prevented sub-acute ruminal acidosis and increased milk fat content in dairy cows. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 172, 141149. doi:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.12.024

[33]   van Werven, T., Noordhuizen-Stassen, E.N., Daemen, A.J.J.M., Schukken, Y.H., Brand, A. and Burvenich, C. (1997) Preinfection in vitro chemotaxis, phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and expression of CD11/CD18 receptors and their predictive capacity on the outcome of mastitis induced in dairy cows with Escherichia coli. Journal of Dairy Science, 80, 67-74. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(97)75913-7

[34]   Hoeben, D., Monfardini, E., Burvenich, C. and Hamann, J. (2000) Treatment of acute Escherichia coli mastitis in cows with enrofloxacin: Effect on clinical signs and chemiluminescence of circulating neutrophils. Journal of Dairy Science, 67, 485-502.

[35]   Vangroenweghe, F., Duchateau, L. and Burvenich, C. (2004) Moderate inflammatory reaction during experimental Escherichia coli mastitis in primiparous cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 87, 886-895. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73233-6

[36]   Hammon, Kitchen, B.J. (1981) Review of the progress of dairy science: Bovine mastitis: Milk compositional changes and related diagnostic tests. Journal of Dairy Research, 48, 167-188. doi:10.1017/S0022029900021580

[37]   Patton, S. (1978) Milk secretion at the cellular level: A unique approach to the mechanism of exocytosis. Journal of Dairy Science, 61, 643-650. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(78)94423-5

[38]   Oliver, S.P. and Smith, K.L. (1982) Milk yield and secretion composition following intramammary infusion of colchicine. Journal of Dairy Science, 65, 204-210. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(82)82178-4

[39]   Sordillo, L.M., Oliver, S.P. and Nickerson, S.C. (1984) Caprine mammary differentiation and initiation of lactation following prepartum colchicine infusion. International Journal of Biochemistry, 161, 1265-1272. doi:10.1016/0020-711X(84)90226-X

[40]   Werner-Misof, C., Macuhova, J., Tancin, V. and Bruckmaier, R.M. (2007) Dose dependent changes in inflammatory parameters in the milk of dairy cows after intramammary infusion of lipopolysaccharide. Veterinarni Medicina, 523, 95-102.