Optimal detection of liquid ionization calorimeter signal in experimental particle physics is considered. A few linear and nonlinear approaches for amplitude and arrival time estimation based on the χ2 function are compared in simulation considering the noise sample correlation introduced by the analog pulse shaper. The estimation bias of the first-order approximation, a.k.a linear optimal filtering, is studied and contrasted to those of the second-order as well as the exhaustive search. A gradient-descent technique is presented as an alternative to the exhaustive search with significantly reduced search time and computation complexity. Results from various pulse shapers including the CR-RC2, CR-RC3, and CR2-RC2 are also compared.
Cite this paper
H. Xu, D. Gong and Y. Chiu, "A Comparative Study of Amplitude and Timing Estimation in Experimental Particle Physics using Monte Carlo Simulation," Journal of Modern Physics, Vol. 4 No. 5, 2013, pp. 42-47. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2013.45B009.
 J. Wang, et al., “Nuclear Electronics,” 1st Edition, Atomic Energy Press, Beijing, 1983.
 T. R. Andeen, “Upgraded Readout Electronics for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters at the High Luminosity LHC,” Journal of Physics Conference Series, Vol. 404, 2012, 012061.
 G. M. Haller, et al., “The LiquidArgon Calorimeter system for the SLC Large Detec-tor,”IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, Vol. 36, No. 1, 1989, pp. 675-679. doi:10.1109/23.34525
 ATLAS Colla-boration, G. Aad, et al., “The ATLAS Experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider,” Journal of Instrumentation, Vol. 3, 2008, S08003.
 C. Collard, et al., “Prediction of Signal Amplitude and Shape for the ATLAS Electromagnetic Calori-meter,” ATLAS Notes, ATL-LARG-PUB-2007-010, Feb. 2008.
 D. Banfi, et al., “Cell Response Equalization of the ATLAS Electromagnetic Calorimeter without the Direct Knowledge of the Ionization Signals,” Journal of Instrumenta-tion, Vol. 1, Aug. 2006, P08001.
 ATLAS Collaboration, G. Aad, et al., “Drift Time Measurement in the ATLAS Liquid Argonelectro Magnetic Calorimeter Using Cosmic Muons,” European Physical Journal C, Vol. 70, No. 3, 2010, pp. 755-785.
 M. Newcomer, “LAPAS: A SiGe Front End Prototype for the Upgraded ATLAS LAr Calorimeter,” Topical Workshop on Electronics for Particle Physics, Paris, France, Sep. 21-25, 2009, pp. 132-135.
 H. Abreu, et al.,“Performance of the Electronic Readout of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters,”Journal of Instrumentation, Vol. 5, Sep. 2010, P09003.
 W. E. Cleland and E. G. Stern, “Signal Processing Considerations for Liquid Ionization Calorimeters in a High Rate Environment,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, Vol. 338, 1994, pp. 467-497.
 S. Starz, “Develop-ment and Implementation of Optimal Filtering in A Virtex FPGA for the Upgrade of the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter Readout,” Journal of Instrumentation, Vol. 7, 2012, C12017.