Objective: The aim of this work was to evaluate the vaginal content of women attending
family planning controls and its relationship with the contraceptive practice
used (oral contraceptive pills,
intrauterine device, condoms, or rhythm
method) as well as its
relationship with the lack of regular contraception. Design: Observational, descriptive study. Setting: Servicio
de Atención Médica—Ministerio de Salud—Sa Pereira—Santa Fe.Argentina. Population: A total of 250 women were studied
following the BAVACO (balance of the vaginal content). Methods: Standard
method, which included the wet mount test, and Giemsa and Gram stain under the
Nugent score. Results: Obtained from the vaginal microbiota, the vaginal
inflammatory response, presence of yeast and Trichomonas allowed defining five basic vaginal microbial states which were statistically related to contraceptive
methods. Main Outcome Measures: The
association of each of the five vaginal states with the different contraceptive
practices was determined by X2 test, considering p < 0.05 as a significant difference (Program EPI-INFO
6. Version 6.04). Results: A significantly positive association was found
between oral contraceptives and normal microbiota (OR 3.98 – p = 0.000);
intrauterine device and bacterial vaginosis (OR 10.1 – p = 0.000); whereas a
negative relationship (OR 0.18 – p = 0.005) was found between oral
contraceptives and bacterial vaginosis (OR 0.21 – p = 0.000). Conclusions: a) the positive association of combined oral contraceptives
with a normal microbiota indicates a positive trend of protection, b)
intrauterine devices increase whereas oral contraceptives decrease the risk for
bacterial vaginosis, while oral contraceptives reduce the frequency.
Cite this paper
Fosch, S. , Yones, C. , Trossero, M. and Grosso, O. (2013) The influence of different contraceptive methods on vaginal microbiota: Clinical study. Health
, 19-24. doi: 10.4236/health.2013.57A4003
 Tibaldi, C., Capello, N., Latino, M.A., Masuelli, G., Marini, S. and Benedetto, C. (2009) Vaginal and endocervical microorganisms in symptomatic and asymptomatic non-pregnant females: Risk factors and rates of occurrence. Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 15, 670-679.
 Andrews, W.W., Hauth, J.C., Cliver, S.P., Conner, M., Goldenberg, R.L. and Goepfert, A.R. (2006) Association of asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis with endometrial microbial colonization and plasma cell endometritis in non pregnant women. American Journal of Obstetic Gynecology, 6, 1611-1616. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2006.04.010
 McGregor, J.A. and French, J.L. (2000) Bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 55, S1-S19. doi:10.1097/00006254-200005001-00001
 Balaka, B., Agbere, A., Dagnra, A., Baeta, S., Jessie, K. and Assimadi, K. (2005) Genital bacterial carriage during the last trimestre of pregnancy and early-onset neonatal sepsis. Archives of Pediatry, 12, 514-519.
 Cohen, C.R., Duerr, A., Pruithithada, N., Rugpao, S., Hillier, S., Garcia, P., et al. (1995) Bacterial vaginosis and HIV seroprevalence among female commercial sex workers. Chiang Mai Thailand AIDS, 9, 1093-1097.
 Spiegel, C.A. (1991) Bacterial vaginosis. Clinical Microbiological Reviews, 4, 485-502.
 Marrazzo, J.M. (2006) A persistent enigmatic ecological mistery: Bacterial vaginosis. Journal of Infectious Disease, 193, 1475-1477. doi:10.1086/503783
 Nugent, R.P., Krohn, M.A. and Hillier, S.L. (1991) Reliability of diagnosting bacterial vaginosis is improved by a standardized method of Gram stain interpretation. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 29, 297-301.
 Proyecto BACOVA and Programa PROSAR (2010) Fundación Bioquímica Argentina. Manual de Procedimientos BACOVA. http://www.fba.org.ar/PROSAR
 Gupta, K., Hillier, S.L., Hooton, T.M., Roberts, P.L. and Stamm, W.E. (2000) Effects of contraceptive method on the vaginal microbial flora: A prospective evaluation. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 181, 595-601.
 Holzman, C., Leventhal, J., Qui, H., et al. (2001) Factors linked to bacterial vaginosis in non pregnant women. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 1664-1670.
 Sobel, J.D. (1993) Candidal vulvovaginitis. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynecology, 36, 153-165.
 Fosch, S., Fogolin, N., Azzaroni, E., Pairetti, N., Dana, L., Minacori, H., et al. (2006) Vulvovaginitis: Correlation with predisposing factors, clinical and microbiological studies. Revista de Argentina de Microbiología, 38, 202-205.
 Martin, R., Soberon, N., Vazquez, F. and Suarez, J.E. (2008) The vaginal microbiota: Composition, protective role, associated pathology and therapeutic perspectives. Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica, 26, 160-167.
 Schreiber, C.A., Meyn, L.A., Creinin, M.D., Barnhart, K.T. and Hillier, S.L. (2006) Effects of long-term use of nonoxynol-9 on vaginal flora. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 107, 136-143.
 Wilson, J. (2004) Managing recurrent bacterial vaginosis. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 80, 8-11.