Cosmology with Bounce by Flat Space-Time Theory of Gravitation and a New Interpretation

ABSTRACT

General relativity predicts a singularity in the beginning of the universe being called big bang. Recent developments in loop quantum cosmology avoid the singularity and the big bang is replaced by a big bounce. A classical theory of gravitation in flat space-time also avoids the singularity under natural conditions on the density parameters. The universe contracts to a positive minimum and then it expands during all times. It is not symmetric with regard to its minimum implying a finite age measured with proper time of the universe. The space of the universe is flat and the total energy is conserved. Under the assumption that the sum of the density parameters is a little bit bigger than one the universe is very hot in early times. Later on, the cosmological model agrees with the one of general relativity. A new interpretation of a non-expanding universe may be given by virtue of flat space-time theory of gravitation.

Cite this paper

W. Petry, "Cosmology with Bounce by Flat Space-Time Theory of Gravitation and a New Interpretation,"*Journal of Modern Physics*, Vol. 4 No. 7, 2013, pp. 20-25. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2013.47A1003.

W. Petry, "Cosmology with Bounce by Flat Space-Time Theory of Gravitation and a New Interpretation,"

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[1] M. Bojowald, Physical Review Letters, Vol. 86, 2001, pp. 5227-5230. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.86.5227

[2] A. Ashtekar, M. Bojowald and J. Lewandowski, Advances Theoretical Mathemaical Physics, Vol. 7, 2003, pp. 233-268.

[3] M. Bojowald, Living Reviews in Relativity, Vol. 8, 2005, p. 11.

[4] A. Ashtekar, General Relativity Gravitation, 2009, pp. 707-741. doi:10.1007/s10714-009-0763-4

[5] A. Ashtekar, “The Big Bang and the Quantum,” 2010, arXiv:1005.5491.

[6] M. Bojowald, “Zurück vor den Urknall, Die ganze Geschichte des Universums,” S. Fischer, 2009.

[7] J. Overduin, H.-J. Bloome and J. Hoell, “Wolfgang Priester: From the Big Bounce to the -Dominated Universe,” 2011, arXiv:astro-ph/0608644.

[8] J. Mielczarek, M. Kamionka, A. Kurek and M. Szydlowski, “Observational Hints on the Big Bounce,” 2010, arXiv:1005.0814.

[9] W. Petry, General Relativity Gravitation, Vol. 13, 1981, pp. 865-872. doi:10.1007/BF00764272

[10] W. Petry, “A Theory of Gravitation in Flat Space-Time, with Applications,” In: M. C. Duffy and M. Wegener, Eds., Recent Advances in Relativity Theory, Vol. II, Hadronic Press, 2002, p. 196.

[11] W. Petry, General Relativity Gravitation, Vol. 13, 1981, pp. 1057-1071. doi:10.1007/BF00756365

[12] W. Petry, General Relativity Gravitation, Vol. 22, 1990, pp. 1045-1065. doi:10.1007/BF00757815

[13] W. Petry, Astrophysics & Space Science, Vol. 222, 1994, pp. 127-145. doi:10.1007/BF00627088

[14] W. Petry, Astrophysics & Space Science, Vol. 254, 1997, pp. 305-317. doi:10.1023/A:1000938931517

[15] W. Petry, “Is the Universe Really Expanding?” 2011, arXiv:0705.4359.

[16] W. Petry, “Cosmology with Bounce by Flat Space-Time Theory of Gravitation and New Interpretation,” 2011, arXiv:1102.1063.