Introduction:Smoking among adolescents remains a major concern because of its long term health hazards.An effective adolescent-specific anti-smoking education is needed. Objectives: To measure the impact of a school-based tobacco prevention program provided by pharmacists on the attitudes and knowledge of senior high students. Methods:An anti-smoking program specifically aimed at high school students was developed by pharmacists and introduced to 354 students inTaiwan. It consisted of a role play and a lecture. The students were asked to complete a structural questionnaire right before and after the intervention. Results: After the intervention, the average of the total attitude scores increased from 41.7 to 43.2 (p=0.001), and the total knowledge scores increased from 6.4 to 8.2 (p<0.001). The average practice score was 31.2 (maximum score = 50) and the result suggested that the practice score was associated with attitude rather than knowledge. Conclusion: This pharmacist-conducted anti-smoking program for high school students resulted in positive changes regarding both attitude and knowledge. This suggests that further anti-smoking programs targeting students would be effective in helping to prevent youth smoking.
Cite this paper
Wu, M. , Shen, W. , Chang, J. , Chiang, Y. , Chen, H. & Chen, H. (2013). The Impact of a Pharmacist-Conducted Interactive Anti-Smoking Education Program on the Attitudes and Knowledge of High School Students. Creative Education, 4, 423-429. doi: 10.4236/ce.2013.47061.
 Ajzen, I. (2001). Nature and operation of attitudes. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 27-58. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.27
 Ali, M. M., & Dwyer, D. S. (2009). Estimating peer effects in adolescent smoking behavior: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Adolescent Health, 45, 402-408. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.02.004
 Aung, A. T., Hickman, N. J., & Moolchan, E. T. (2003). Health and performance related reasons for wanting to quit: Gender differences among teen smokers. Substance Use & Misuse, 38, 1095-1107.
 The World Bank (1999). Curbing the epidemic: Governments and the economics of tobacco control. Tob Control, 8, 196-201.
 Escobedo, L. G., Anda, R. F., Smith, P. F., Remington, P. L., & Mast, E. E. (1990). Sociodemographic characteristics of cigarette smoking initiation in the United States. Implications for smoking prevention policy. JAMA, 264, 1550-1555.
 Fagerstrom, K. (2002). The epidemiology of smoking: Health consequences and benefits of cessation. Drugs, 62, 1-9.
 Hill, K. G., Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., Abbott, R. D., & Guo, J. (2005). Family influences on the risk of daily smoking initiation. Journal of Adolescent Health, 37, 202-210.
 Hodgetts, G., Broers, T., & Godwin, M. (2004). Smoking behaviour, knowledge and attitudes among Family Medicine physicians and nurses in Bosnia and Herzegovina. BMC Family Practice, 5, 12.
 Hsia, F. N., & Spruijt-Metz, D. (2003). The meanings of smoking among Chinese American and Taiwanese American college students. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 5, 837-850.
 Jackson, C., & Dickinson, D. (2004). Cigarette consumption during childhood and persistence of smoking through adolescence. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 158, 1050-1056.
 Keyes, M., Legrand, L. N., Iacono, W. G., & McGue, M. (2008). Pa rental smoking and adolescent problem behavior: An adoption study of general and specific effects. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 1338-1344. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.08010125
 Khuder, S. A., Dayal, H. H., & Mutgi, A. B. (1999). Age at smoking onset and its effect on smoking cessation. Addictive Behaviors, 24, 673-677. doi:10.1016/S0306-4603(98)00113-0
 Lynch, B. S., & Bonnie, R. J. (1994). Growing up tobacco free: Pre venting nicotine addiction in children and youths. National Academy Press, 1.
 Meier, K. S. (1991). Tobacco truths: the impact of role models on children’s attitudes toward smoking. Health Education Quarterly, 18, 173-182. doi:10.1177/109019819101800203
 Minagawa, K.-E., Nishioka, N., Kawabata, T., Takahashi, H., MOChizuki, Y., Nozu, Y., et al. (1992). Tobacco use among Japanese school children: results from preliminary study of Japan adolescent smoking survey (JASS). Health Promotion International, 7, 8.
 Nabors, L., Iobst, E. A., & McGrady, M. E. (2007). Evaluation of school based smoking prevention programs. The Journal of School Health, 77, 331-333. doi:10.1111/j.1746-1561.2007.00215.x
 Executive Summary (1994). Preventing tobacco use among young people. A report of the surgeon general. The MMWR Recommendations and Reports, 43, 1-10.
 Robinson, L. A., Vander Weg, M. W., Riedel, B. W., Klesges, R. C., & McLain-Allen, B. (2003). "Start to stop": Results of a randomised controlled trial of a smoking cessation programme for teens. Tob Control, 12, IV26-IV33. doi:10.1136/tc.12.suppl_4.iv26
 Summary of Findings from the 1998 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (1999). Substance abuse and mental health services administration. US Department of Health and Human Services.
 Sussman, S., Sun, P., & Dent, C. W. (2006). A meta-analysis of teen cigarette smoking cessation. Health Psychology, 25, 549-557.
 Taiwan Tobacco Control 2009 Annual Report (2009). Bureau of Health Promotion. Chinese Tapei: Department of Health.
 Takakura, M., & Wake, N. (2003). Association of age at onset of cigarette and alcohol use with subsequent smoking and drinking patterns among Japanese high school students. The Journal of School Health, 73, 226-231. doi:10.1111/j.1746-1561.2003.tb06566.x
 Torabi, M. R., Yang, J., & Li, J. (2002). Comparison of tobacco use knowledge, attitude and practice among college students in China and the United States. Health Promotion International, 17, 247-253.
 Wang, M. Q., Fitzhugh, E. C., Westerfield, R. C., & Eddy, J. M. (1995). Family and peer influences on smoking behavior among American adolescents: An age trend. Journal of Adolescent Health, 16, 200-203. doi:10.1016/1054-139X(94)00097-X