Reed pans are a very uncommon type of
endorheic wetland, and as such the amount of information available is very
limited. Thus, they are being impacted on by various agricultural, livestock
and other anthropogenic activities. The objectives of this study were to
determine the spatial and temporal variations of macroinvertebrate community
structures in reed pans and the environmental factors (i.e., water quality)
responsible for the maintenance of these structures. Reed pans were studied
over four different seasons, during which time subsurface water, sediment and
macroinvertebrate samples were collected and analyzed. The reed pans studied
showed that the macroinvertebrates were able to reflect various changes in reed
pans with regard to seasonal variability and anthropogenic impacts on water
quality. These anthropogenic impacts caused the disappearance of sensitive
macroinvertebrate taxa and the increase of tolerant macroinvertebrate taxa.
Cite this paper
A. Klerk and V. Wepener, "Macroinvertebrate Assemblage Changes as an Indicator of Water Quality of Perennial Endorheic Reed Pans on the Mpumalanga Highveld, South Africa," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 4 No. 7, 2013, pp. 10-21. doi: 10.4236/jep.2013.47A002.
 S. Goudie and G. L. Wells, “The Nature, Distribution and Formation of Pans in Arid Zones,” Earth-Science Reviews, Vol. 38, 1995, pp. 1-69.
 A. S. Goudie and D. S. G. Thomas, “Pans in Southern Africa with Particular Reference to South Africa and Zimbabwe,” Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie N.F, Vol. 29, 1985, pp. 1-19.
 D. Allan, “The Conservation of the Pans of the Transvaal Highveld,” Unpublished Report by Transvaal Division of Nature Conservation, Project No. TN6/4/2/3/2, 1985.
 P. Grundling, A. Linstrom, R. Grobler and J. Engelbrecht, “The Tevredenpan Peatland Complex of the Mpumalanga Lakes District,” In: J. Couwenberg and H. Joosten, Eds., International Mire Conservation Group, Newsletter Issue 2007/3, 2003.
 R. E. Schulze, “South African Atlas of Agrohydrology and -Climatology,” Report to the Water Research Commission, Report No. TT82/96, Pretoria, 1997.
 J. Dini, G. Cowan and P. Goodman, “South African National Wetland Inventory: Proposed Wetland Classification System for South Africa,” Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Pretoria, 1998.
 G. I. Cowan and W. Van Riet, “A Directory of South African Wetlands,” Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Pretoria, 1998.
 D. R. Hohls, “National Biomonitoring Program for Riverine Ecosystems: Framework Document for the Program,” NBP Report Series No 1, Institute for Water Quality Studies, Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Pretoria, 1996.
 B. J. E. Ten Brink and J. H. Woudstra, “Towards an Effective and Rational Water Management: The Aquatic Outlook Project-Integrating Water Management, Monitoring and Research,” European Water Pollution Control, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1991, pp. 20-27.
 R. Haase and U. Nolte, “The Invertebrate Species Index (ISI) for Streams in Southeast Queensland, Australia,” Ecological Indicators, Vol. 8, No. 5, 2008, pp. 599-613.
 J. N. Rinne, “The Utility of Stream Habitat and Biota for Identifying Potential Conflicting Forest Land Uses: Montane riparian areas,” Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 33-34, 1990, pp. 363-383.
 T. J. Hillman and G. P. Quinn, “Temporal Changes in Macroinvertebrate Assemblages Following Experimental Flooding in Permanent and Temporary Wetlands in an Australian Floodplain Forest,” River Research and Application, Vol. 18, No. 2, 2002, pp. 137-154.
 D. M. Rosenberg and V. H. Resh, “Introduction to Freshwater Biomonitoring and Benthic Macroinvertebrates,” In: D. M. Rosenberg and V. H. Resh, Eds., Freshwater Biomonitoring and Benthic Macroinvertebrates, Chapman and Hall, 1993.
 T. Assmuth, and S. Penttila, “Characteristics, Determinants and Interpretations of Acute Lethality in Daphnids Exposed to Complex Waste Leachates,” Aquatic Toxicology, Vol. 31, No. 2, 1995, pp. 125-141.
 S. Meintjies, “Seasonal Changes in the Invertebrate Community of Small Shallow Ephemeral Pans at Bain’s Vlei, South Africa,” Hydrobiologia, Vol. 317, No. 1, 1996, pp. 51-64. doi:10.1007/BF00013725
 A. R. de Klerk, L. P. de Klerk, J. Chamier and V. Wepener, “Seasonal Variations in Water and Sediment Quality Found in Reed Pans on the Mpumalanga Highveld,” Water SA, Vol. 38, 2012, pp. 663-672.
 D. P. Sartory and J. U. Grobbelaar, “Extraction of Chlorophyll A from Freshwater Phytoplankton for Spectrophotometric Analysis,” Hydrobiologia, Vol. 114, No. 3, 1984, pp. 177-187. doi:10.1007/BF00031869
 DWAF (Department of Water Affairs and Forestry), “Analytical Methods Manual,” Technical Report 151. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Pretoria, 1992.
 C. J. Lorenzen, “Determination of Chlorophyll and Pheo-Pigments: Spectrophotometric Equations,” Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1967, pp. 343-346.
 MPCA (Minnesota Pollution and Control Agency), “Macroinvertebrate Community Sampling Protocol for Depressional Wetland Monitoring Sites,” Biological Monitoring Program, 2007.
 A. R. de Klerk and V. Wepener, “The Influence of Biotope and Sampling Method on the Assessment of the Invertebrate Community Structure in Endorheic Reed Pans in South Africa,” African Journal of Aquatic Science, Vol. 36, No. 1, 2011, pp. 67-74.
 J. A Day, B. A. Stewart, I. J. De Moor and A. E. Louw, “Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern Africa, Vol. 2: Crustacea I: Notostraca, Anostraca, Conchostraca and Cladocera,” WRC Report No. TT 121/00, Water Research Commission, Pretoria, 1999.
 J. A Day, I. J. De Moor, B. A. Stewart and A. E. Louw, “Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern Africa, Vol. 3: Crustacea II: Ostracoda, Copepoda & Branchiura,” WRC Report No. TT 148/01, Water Research Commission, Pretoria, 2001.
 J. A. Day, B. A. Stewart, I. J. De Moor and A. E. Louw, “Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern Africa, Vol. 4: Crustacea III: Bathynellacea, Amphipoda, Isopoda, Spelaeogriphacea, Tanaidacea, Decapoda,” WRC Report No. TT 141/01, Water Research Commission, Pretoria, 2001.
 J. A. Day, A. D. Harrison and I. J. De Moor, “Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern Africa, Vol. 9: Diptera,” WRC Report No. TT 201/02, Water Research Commission, Pretoria, 2002.
 J. A. Day and I. J. De Moor, “Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern Africa, Vol. 5: Non-Arthropods: The Protozoans, Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Nermertea, Rotifera, Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Gastrotrichia, Bryozoa, Tardigrada, Polychaeta, Oligochaeta & Hirundinea,” WRC Report No. TT 167/02, Water Research Commission, Pretoria, 2002.
 J. A. Day and I. J. De Moor, “Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern Africa, Vol. 6: Arachnida & Mollusca: Araneae, Water Mites & Mollusca,” WRC Report No. TT 182/02, Water Research Commission, Pretoria, 2002.
 I. J. De Moor, J. A. Day and F. C. De Moor, “Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern Africa, Vol. 7: Insecta I: Ephemeroptera, Odonata & Plecoptera,” WRC Report No. TT 207/03, Water Research Commission, Pretoria, 2003.
 I. J. De Moor, J. A. Day and F. C. De Moor, “Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern Africa, Vol. 8: Insecta II: Hemiptera, Megaloptera, Neuroptera, Trichoptera & Lepidoptera,” WRC Report No. TT 214/03, Water Research Commission, Pretoria, 2003.
 R. Stals and I. J. De Moor, “Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern Africa, Vol. 10: Coleoptera,” WRC Report No. TT 320/07, Water Research Commission, Pretoria, 2008.
 K. R. Clarke and R. N. Gorley, “Primer v6: User Manual/Tutorial,” PRIMER-E, Plymouth, 2006.
 R. Margalef, “Diversidad de Especies en las Comunidades Naturales,” Publicaciones del Instituto de Biologia Aplicada, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1951, pp. 59-72.
 T. P. Wilhm and T. C. Dorris, “Biological Parameters for Water Quality Criteria,” Biological Science, Vol. 18, No. 6, 1968, pp. 477-481.
 C. J. F. Ter Braak and P. Smilauer, “CANOCO Reference Manual and Canodraw for Windows User’s Guide: Software for Canonical Community Ordination (Version 4.5),” Microcomputer Power, New York, 2002.
 J. S. Gray, K. R. Clarke, R. M. Warwick and G. Hobbs, “Detection of Initial Effects of Pollution on Marine Benthos: An Example from the Ekofisk and Eldfisk Oilfields, North Sea,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 66, 1990, pp. 285-299. doi:10.3354/meps066285
 J. E. Growns, J. A. Davis, F. Cheal, L. G. Schmidt, R. S. Rosich and J. S. Bradley, “Multivariate Pattern Analysis of Wetland Invertebrate Communities and Environmental Variables in Western Australia,” Australian Journal of Ecology, Vol. 17, No. 3, 1992, pp. 275-288.
 S. A. Halse, D. J. Cale, E. J. Jasinska and R. J. Shiel, “Monitoring Change in Aquatic Invertebrate Biodiversity: Sample Size, Faunal Elements and Analytical Methods,” Aquatic Ecology, Vol. 36, No. 3, 2002, pp. 395-410.
 H. F. Dallas and J. A. Day, “The Effect of Water Quality Variables on Riverine Ecosystems: A Review,” Water Research Commission, Pretoria, 1993.
 A. D. Lemly, “Modification of Benthic Insect Communities in Polluted Streams: Combined Effects of Sedimentation and Nutrient Enrichment,” Hydrobiologia, Vol. 87, No. 3, 1982, pp. 229-245. doi:10.1007/BF00007232
 M. F. Paisley, W. J. Walley, J. Nikhade and R. Dils, “Identification of the Key Biological Indicators of Nutrient Enrichment in Rivers for Use in Predictive/Diagnostic Models,” Diffuse Pollution Conference, Dublin, 17-21 August 2003, pp. 8-13.
 J. M. Hellawell, “Biological Indicators of Freshwater Pollution and Environmental Management,” Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, Amsterdam, 1986.
 D. R. Lenat and K. Crawford, “Effects of Land Use on Water Quality and Aquatic Biota of Three North Carolina Piedmont Streams,” Hydrobiologia, Vol. 294, No. 3, 1994, pp. 185-199. doi:10.1007/BF00021291
 D. R. Lenat and K. W. Eagleson, “Ecological Effects of Urban Runoff on North Carolina Streams,” North Carolina Department of Natural Resources & Community Development, Division of Environmental Management, Water Quality Section, Biological Monitoring Group, 1981.
 B. M. Weigel, L. J. Henne and L. M. Martinez-Rivera, “Macroinvertebrate-Based Index of Biotic Integrity for Protection of Streams in West-Central Mexico,” Journal of the North American Benthological Society, Vol. 21, No. 4, 2002, pp. 686-700. doi:10.2307/1468439
 M. Koryak, M. A. Shapiro and J. L. Sykora, “Riffle Zoobenthos in Streams Receiving Acid-Mine Drainage,” Water Research, Vol. 6, No. 10, 1972, pp. 1239-1247.
 S. Kucuk, “The Effect of Organic Pollution on Benthic Macroinvertebrate Fauna in the Kirmir Creek in the Sakarya Basin,” ADü Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2008, pp. 5-12.
 D. R. Lenat, “Agriculture and Stream Water Quality: A Biological Evaluation of Erosion Control Practices,” Environmental Management, Vol. 8, No. 4, 1984, pp. 333-344. doi:10.1007/BF01868032
 B. Bis, A. Zdanowicz and M. Zalewski, “Effects of Catchment Properties on Hydrochemistry, Habitat Complexity and Invertebrate Community Structure in a Lowland River,” Hydrobiologia, Vol. 422-423, 2000, pp. 369-387.
 M. R. Vinson and C. P. Hawkins, “Biodiversity of Stream Insects: Variation at Local Basin and Regional Scales,” Annual Review of Entomology, Vol. 43, 1998, pp. 271-293. doi:10.1146/annurev.ento.43.1.271