ABSTRACT Major resections of bone tumors of the head and neck, owing to their small dimensions and their proximity to the organs in this region, cause important functional and aesthetic problems that significantly compromise patients’ quality of life. Therefore, therapeutic planning should always extend beyond the resection to include functional and aesthetic reconstruction, preferably immediately. Microsurgical reconstruction represents a significant advance, but has not yet been perfected. Rapid prototyping (RP) comes as a new technology for the purpose of assisting the surgeon in the visual and tactile aspects of surgery, providing diagnostic accuracy and increasing the success of surgical planning. The authors demonstrate the technological advances in the manufacture of customized mandibular prostheses with the assistance of RP and practical applications of these methods.
Cite this paper
T. Farias, F. Dias, B. Sousa, M. Galvão, D. Bispo and A. Pastl, "Prototyping: Major Advance in Surgical Planning and Customizing Prostheses in Patients with Bone Tumors of the Head and Neck," International Journal of Clinical Medicine, Vol. 4 No. 7, 2013, pp. 1-7. doi: 10.4236/ijcm.2013.47A1001.
 D. Yousem, K. Gad and R. Tufano, “Resectability Issues with Head and Neck Cancer,” AJNR, Vol. 27, No. 10, 2006, pp. 2024-2036.
 J. Boyd, “Use of Reconstruction Plates in Conjuction with Soft-Tissue Free Flaps for Oromandibular Reconstruction,” Clinics in Plastic Surgery, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1994, pp. 69-77.
 J. Winder and R. Bibb, “Medical Rapid Prototyping Technologies: State of the Art and Current Limitations for Application in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery,” Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Vol. 63, No. 7, 2005, pp. 1006-1015. doi:10.1016/j.joms.2005.03.016
 R. Bibb, Z. Taha, R. Brown and D. Whight, “Development of a Rapid Prototyping Design Advice System,” Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing Vol. 10, No. 3, 1999, pp. 331-339. doi:10.1023/A:1008920512663
 J.Choi, H. Choi, N. Kim, et al., “Analysis of Errors in Medical Rapid Prototyping Models,” International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Vol. 31, No. 1, 2002, pp. 23-32. doi:10.1054/ijom.2000.0135
 W. Yeong, C. Chua and K. Leong, “Rapid Prototyping in Tissue Engineering: Challenges and Potencial,” Trends in Biotechnology, Vol. 22, No. 12, 2004, pp. 643-652.
 D. Ma, F. Lin and C. Chua, “Rapid Prototyping Applications in Medicine. Part 1: NURBS-Based Volume Modelling,” International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 18, No. 2, 2001, pp. 103-117.
 C. Kai, C. Meng, L. Ching, et al., “Rapid Prototyping Assisted Surgery Planning,” International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 14, No. 9, 1998, pp. 624-630. doi:10.1007/BF01192281
 C. Klug, K. Schicho, O. Ploder, et al., “Point-to-Point Computer-Assisted Navigation for Precise Transfer of Planned Zygoma Osteotomies from the Stereolithographic Model into Reality,” Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Vol. 64, No. 3, 2006, pp. 550-559.
 J. Martin and F. Keim, “Using Prototyping in Planning Microsurgical Reconstruction of the Mandible,” Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, Vol. 14, No. 4, 2011, pp. 225-228.
 D. Dean, K. Min and A. Bond, “Computer Aided Design of Large-Format Prefabricated Cranial Plates,” Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, Vol. 14, No. 6, 2003, pp. 819-832.
 H. Rotaru, H. Stan, I. Florian, et al., “Cranioplasty with Custom-Made Implants: Analyzing the Cases of 10 Patients,” Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Vol. 70, No. 2, 2012, pp. 169-176.
 R. Chrzan, A. Urbanik, K. Karbowski, M. Moskala, J. Polak and M. Pyrich, “Cranioplasty Prosthesis Manufacturing Based on Reverse Engineering Technology,” Medical Science Monitor, Vol. 18, No. 1, 2012, pp. 1-6.
 N. Gerber, L. Stieglitz, M. Peterhans, et al., “Using Rapid Prototyping Molds to Create Patient Specific Polymethylmethacrylate Implants in Cranioplasty,” Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2010 Annual International Conference of the IEEE, Buenos Aires, 31 August-4 September 2010, pp. 3357-3360.
 T. Deshmukh, A. Kuthe, S. Chaware, V. Bagaria and D. Ingole, “A Novel Rapid Prototyping and Finite Element Method-Based Development of the Patient-Specific Temporomandibular Joint Implant,” Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 15, No. 4, 2012, pp. 363-370.
 E. Keller, E. Baltali, X. Liang, K. Zhao, M. Huebner and K. An, “Temporomandibular Custom Hemijoint Replacement Prosthesis: Prospective Clinical and Kinematic Study,” Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Vol. 70, No. 2, 2012, pp. 276-288.
 S. Singare, L. Dichen, L. Bingheng, G. Zhenyu and L. Yaxiong, “Customized Design and Manufacturing of Chin Implant Based on Rapid Prototyping,” Rapid Prototyping Journal, Vol. 11, No. 2, 2005, pp. 113-118.
 S. Singare, L. Yaxiong, L. Dichen, L. Bingheng, H. Sanhu and L. Gang, “Fabrication of Customised MaxilloFacial Prosthesis Using Computer-Aided Design and Rapid Prototyping Techniques,” Rapid Prototyping Journal, Vol. 12, No. 4, 2006, pp. 206-213.
 L. Zhou, J. Zhao, H. Shang, et al., “Reconstruction of Mandibular Defects Using a Custom-Made Titanium Tray in Combination with Autologous Cancellous Bone,” Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Vol. 69, No. 5, 2011, pp. 1508-1518. doi:10.1016/j.joms.2010.06.185
 Y. Lin, S. Zhang, X. Chen and C. Wang, “A Novel Method in the Design and Fabrication of Dental Splints Based on 3D simulation and Rapid Prototyping Technology,” International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 28, No. 10, 2006, pp. 919-922.
 L. Cunningham, M. Madsen and G. Peterson, “Stereolithographic Modeling Technology Applied to Tumor Resection,” Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Vol. 63, No. 6, 2005, pp. 873-878.
 H. Anderl, D. Nedden, K. Twerdy, et al., “CT-Guided Stereolithography as a New Tool in Craniofacial Surgery,” British Journal of Plastic Surgery, Vol. 47, No. 1, 1994, pp. 60-64.
 J. Bill, J. Reuther, W. Dittmann, et al., “Stereolithographyin Oral and Maxillofacial Operation Planning,” International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Vol. 24, No. 1, 1995, pp. 98-103.
 L. Zhao, P. Patel and M. Cohen, “Application of Virtual Surgical Planning with Computer Assisted Design in Maxillofacial Surgery,” Archives of Plastic Surgery, Vol. 39, No. 4, 2012, pp. 309-316.
 T. Bisdas and O. Teebken, “Future Perspectives for the Hole of 3-D Rapid Prototyping Aortic Biomodels in Vascular Medicine,” VASA, Vol. 40, No. 6, 2011, pp. 427428. doi:10.5999/aps.2012.39.4.309
 H. Essig, M. Rana, H. Kokemueller, et al., “Pre-Operative Planning for Mandibular Reconstruction—A Full Digital Planning Workflow Resulting in a Patient Specific Reconstruction,” Head & Neck Oncology, Vol. 3, No. 45, 2011, p. 45. doi:10.5999/aps.2012.39.4.309
 A. Macario, “What Does One Minute of Operating Room Time Cost?” Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, Vol. 22, No. 4, 2010, pp. 233-236. doi:10.5999/aps.2012.39.4.309
 M. Hanasono and R. Skoracki, “Computer-Assisted Design and Rapid Prototype Modeling in Microvascular Mandible Reconstruction,” Laryngoscope, Vol. 123, No. 3, 2013, pp. 597-604. doi:10.5999/aps.2012.39.4.309
 S. Edwards, “Computer-Assisted Craniomaxillofacial Surgery,” Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2010, pp. 117-134.
 S. Bhumiratana and G. Novakovic, “Personalized Human Bone Grafts for Reconstructiong Head and Face,” Stem Cells Translational Medicine, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2012, pp. 6469.
 J. Levine, A. Patel, P. Saadeh and D. Hirsch, “Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing in Craniomaxillofacial Surgery: The State of the Art,” Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, Vol. 23, No. 1, 2012, pp. 288-293.