FNS  Vol.4 No.7 A , July 2013
Milk Spoilage: Methods and Practices of Detecting Milk Quality
Abstract: Milk spoilage is an indefinite term and difficult to measure with accuracy. This uncertainty can cause suffering for both milk manufacturers and consumers. Consumers who have been misled by ambiguous expiration dates on milk cartons waste resources by disposing of unspoiled milk or experience discomfort from drinking spoiled milk. Consumers are often unwilling to purchase products close to their inaccurate expiration dates. This consumer behavior has a negative financial impact on milk producers. Inaccurate milk spoilage detection methods also force milk producers to use overly conservative expiration dates in an effort to avoid the legal and economic consequences of consumers experiencing illness from drinking spoiled milk. Over the last decade, new methods have been researched with the purpose of developing more accurate and efficient means of detecting milk spoilage. These methods include indicators based on pH bacteria counts and gas-sensor arrays. This article explores various methods of spoilage detection designed to prevent such consequences. The respective level of effectiveness of each method is discussed, as well as several further approaches to contain freshness regardless of detection.
Cite this paper: M. Lu, Y. Shiau, J. Wong, R. Lin, H. Kravis, T. Blackmon, T. Pakzad, T. Jen, A. Cheng, J. Chang, E. Ong, N. Sarfaraz and N. Wang, "Milk Spoilage: Methods and Practices of Detecting Milk Quality," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 7, 2013, pp. 113-123. doi: 10.4236/fns.2013.47A014.

[1]   J. Kim, D. Twede and J. Lichty, “Consumer Attitudes About Open Dating Techniques for Packaged Foods and Over-the-Counter Drugs,” Journal of Food Products Marketing, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1997, pp. 17-30. doi:10.1300/J038v04n01_03

[2]   United States Food and Drug Administration, “Foodborne Illness-Causing Organisms in the U.S.—What You Need to Know,” 2008.

[3]   E. B. Hager, “Removing Mysterious Sell-By Date from Milk Cartons,” The New York Times, 15 June 2010.

[4]   T. Fleischer, “NYC May Expire Milk Date Rules,” ABC News, 14 June 2010.

[5]   F. Fabricant, “Freshness of Milk Products,” The New York Times, 10 March 1982.

[6]   I. N. A. Ashie, J. P. Smith, B. K. Simpson and N. F. Haard, “Spoilage and Shelf-Life Extension of Fresh Fish and Shellfish,” Critical Reviews in Food Science & Nutrition, Vol. 36, No. 1-2, 1996, pp. 87-121. doi:10.1080/10408399609527720

[7]   D. Restuccia, et al., “New EU Regulation Aspects and Global Market of Active and Intelligent Packaging for Food Industry Applications,” Food Control, Vol. 21, No. 11, 2010, pp. 1425-1435. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2010.04.028

[8]   J. D. Eifert, C. Gennings, W. H. Carter, S. E. Duncan and C. R. Hackney, “Predictive Model with Improved Statistical Analysis of Interactive Factors Affecting the Growth of Staphylococcus aureus,” Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 59, No. 6, 1996, pp. 608-614.

[9]   T. R. Klaenhammer, “Bacteriocins of Lactic Acid Bacteria,” Biochimie, Vol. 70, No. 3, 1988, pp. 337-349. doi:10.1016/0300-9084(88)90206-4

[10]   J. L. Kornacki and J. L. Johnson, “Enterobacteriaceae, Coliforms, and Escherichia coli as Quality and Safety Indicators,” Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods, Vol. 4, 2001, pp. 69-82.

[11]   United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Marketing Service, “Commodity Areas,” 2013.

[12]   R. P. Singh and B. A. Anderson, “The Major Types of Food Spoilage: An Overview,” In: R. Steele, Ed., Understanding and Measuring the Shelf-Life of Food, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2004, pp. 3-23. doi:10.1533/9781855739024.1.3

[13]   D. R. Sepulveda, M. M. Góngora-Nieto, J. A. Guerrero and G. V. Barbosa-Cánovas, “Production of ExtendedShelf Life Milk by Processing Pasteurized Milk with Pulsed Electric Fields,” Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 67, No. 1, 2005, pp. 81-86. doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2004.05.056

[14]   E. Lopez and R. Lopez, “Demand for Differentiated Milk Products: Implications for Price Competition,” Agribusiness, Vol. 25, No. 4, 2009, pp. 453-465. doi:10.1002/agr.20219

[15]   Ministry of Agriculture, “Training Programme for Small Scale Dairy Sector and Dairy Training Institute,” In: Milk Processing Guide Series 2: Milk Testing and Quality Control, FAO/TCP/KEN/6611 Project, Naivasha, 2013.

[16]   H. I. Fromm and K. J. Boor, “Characterization of Pasteurized Fluid Milk Shelf-Life Attributes,” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 69, No. 8, 2013, pp. 207-214. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2004.tb09889.x

[17]   M. V. Santos, Y. Ma, Z. Caplan and D. M. Barbano, “Sensory Threshold of Off-Flavors Caused by Proteolysis and Lipolysis in Milk,” Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 86, No. 5, 2003, pp. 1601-1607. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73745-X

[18]   H. M. Ostlie, M. H. Helland, M. H. and J. A. Narvhus, “Growth and Metabolism of Selected Strains of Probiotic Bacteria in Milk,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 87, No. 1-2, 2003, pp. 17-27. doi:10.1016/S0168-1605(03)00044-8

[19]   H. V. Atherton and J. A. Newlander, “Chemistry and Testing of Dairy Products,” 4th Edition, AVI Publishing Co. Inc., Madison, 1977.

[20]   Y. G. Lee, H. Y. Wu, C. L. Hsu, C. J. Liang, H. D. Yuan. “A Rapid and Selective Method for Monitoring the Growth of Coliforms in Milk Using the Combination of Amperometric Sensor and Reducing of Methylene Blue,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, Vol. 141, No. 2, 2009, pp. 575-580. doi:10.1016/j.snb.2009.06.028

[21]   Q. Cai, K. Zeng, C. Ruan, T. A. Desai and C. A. Grimes, “A Wireless, Remote Query Glucose Biosensor Based on a pH-Sensitive Polymer,” Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 76, No. 14, 2004, pp. 4038-4043. doi:10.1021/ac0498516

[22]   L. G. Puckett, G. Barrett, D. Kouzoudis, C. A. Grimes and L. G. Bachas, “Monitoring Blood Coagulation with Magnetoelastic Sensors,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Vol. 18, No. 5-6, 2003, pp. 675-681. doi:10.1016/S0956-5663(03)00033-2

[23]   C. Ruan, K. Zeng, O. K. Varghese and C. A. Grimes, “Magnetoelastic Immunosensors: Amplified Mass Immunosorbent Assay for Detection of Escherichia coli O157: H7,” Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 75, No. 23, 2003, pp. 6494-6498. doi:10.1021/ac034562n

[24]   R. Guntupalli, R.S. Lakshmanan, J. Hu, T. S. Huang, J. M. Barbaree, V. Vodyanoy and B. A. Chin, “Rapid and Sensitive Magnetoelastic Biosensors for the Detection of Salmonella typhimurium in a Mixed Microbial Population,” Journal of Microbiological Methods, Vol. 70, No. 1, 2007, pp. 112-118. doi:10.1016/j.mimet.2007.04.001

[25]   S. Huang, S. Ge, L. He, Q. Cai and C. A. Grimes, “A Remote-Query Sensor for Predictive Indication of Milk Spoilage,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Vol. 23, No. 11, 2008, pp. 1745-1748. doi:10.1016/j.bios.2008.01.036

[26]   P. D. Costa, N. J. De Andrade, F. J. V. Passos, S. C. C. Brandao and C. G. F. Rodrigues, “ATP-Bioluminescence as a Technique to Evaluate the Microbiological Quality of Water in Food Industry,” Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, Vol. 47, No. 3, 2004, pp. 399-405. doi:10.1590/S1516-89132004000300010

[27]   N. Ahmed, A. K. Mohanty, U. Mukhopadhyay, V. K. Batish and S. Grover, “PCR-based Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in Blood from Immunocompetent Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Vol. 36, No. 10, 1998, pp. 3094-3096.

[28]   J. Haugen, R. Knut, S. Langsrud and S. Bredholt, “Application of Gas-Sensor Array Technology for Detection and Monitoring of Growth of Spoilage Bacteria in Milk: A Model Study,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 565, No. 1, 2006, pp. 10-16. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2006.02.016

[29]   M. Hébraud and P. Potier, “Cold Shock Response and Low Temperature Adaptation in Psychrotrophic Bacteria,” Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1999, pp. 211-219.

[30]   Y. Liu, et al., “Prediction of Color, Texture, and Sensory Characteristics of Beef Steaks by Visible and Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy. A Feasibility Study,” Meat Science, Vol. 65, No. 3, 2003, pp. 1107-1115. doi:10.1016/S0309-1740(02)00328-5

[31]   M. Lin, M. Mousavi, M. Al-Holy, A. G. Cavinato and B. A. Rasco, “Rapid Near Infrared Spectroscopic Method for the Detection of Spoilage in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Fillet,” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 71, No. 1, 2006, pp. S18-S23. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2006.tb12400.x

[32]   H. M. Al-Qadiri, M. Lin, M. A. Al-Holy, A. G. Cavinato and B. A. Rasco, “Monitoring Quality Loss of Pasteurized Skim Milk Using Visible and Short Wavelength Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis,” Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 91, No. 3, 2008, pp. 950958. doi:10.3168/jds.2007-0618

[33]   N. Nicolaou, Y. Xu and R. Goodacre, “Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis for the Detection and Quantification of Different Milk Species,” Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 93, No. 12, 2010, pp. 5651-5660. doi:10.3168/jds.2010-3619

[34]   S. O. Yagoub, F. A. Bellow and I. El Zubeir, “Effect of Temperature and Storage Period on the Constituents of Milk Inoculated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa,” Research Journal of Microbiology, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2008, pp. 30-34.

[35]   E. Chiacchierini, F. D. Ascenzo, D. Restuccia and G. Vinci, “Milk Soluble Whey Proteins: Fast and Precise Determination with Dumas Method,” Analytical Letters, Vol. 36, No. 11, 2003, p. 2473. doi:10.1081/AL-120024336

[36]   D. H. Kleyn, J. M. Lynch, D. M. Barbano, M. J. Bloom and M. W. Mitchell, “Determination of Fat in Raw and Processed Milks by the Gerber Method: Collaborative Study,” Journal of AOAC International, Vol. 84, No. 5, 2001, pp. 1499-1508.

[37]   E. H. Zacharov and M. Halpern, “Culturable Psychrotrophic Bacterial Communities in Raw Milk and Their Proteolytic and Lipolytic Traits,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 73, No. 22, 2007, pp. 7162-7168. doi:10.1128/AEM.00866-07

[38]   D. D. Muir, “The Shelf-Life of Dairy Products: 1. Factors Influencing Raw Milk and Fresh Products,” International Journal of Dairy Technology, Vol. 49, No. 1, 1996, pp. 24-32. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0307.1996.tb02616.x

[39]   Tetra Pack International S.A., “Tetra Pak—About Processing, Packaging and Aseptic Technology,” 2013.

[40]   Evergreen Packaging, “Packaging Innovation,” 2013.

[41]   C. Kouki, E. Sakin, Z. Jemai and Y. Dallery, “Assessing the Impact of Perishability and the Use of Time Temperature Technologies on Inventory Management,” International Journal of Production Economics, Vol. 143, No. 1, 2013, pp. 72-85.

[42]   C. Fortin and H. L. Goodwin, “Valuation of TempTime’s Fresh Check Indicator on Perishable Food Products in Belgium,” Selected Paper Prepared for Presentation at the Southern Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting, Dallas, 2-5 February 2008, pp. 1-20.

[43]   TempTime Corporation, “Products Overview,” 2009.