FNS  Vol.4 No.7 A , July 2013
Acute Toxicity and Genotoxic Evaluation of Metlin® and Metlos® (Organic Agave Fructans)
Abstract: The aim of the study was to contribute to the information on agave soluble fibers since research has been focused on chicory fiber but not in agave products; thus we assess the acute toxicity and genotoxicity of two organic and high purity dietary soluble fibers from agave, Metlin? and Metlos?. We performed an acute toxicity assay in Hsd:ICR mice and Hsd:Wistar rats and an in vivo genotoxic test. Results showed that there are no deaths at any doses or genotoxicity, so it can be concluded that these products are non-toxic, at the administrated doses and none showed a cytotoxic, clastogenic or aneuploidic effect.
Cite this paper: M. Gracia, M. Tinoco, H. Rivera, B. Sanchez, P. Tapia, L. Altamirano, R. Romero and O. García, "Acute Toxicity and Genotoxic Evaluation of Metlin® and Metlos® (Organic Agave Fructans)," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 7, 2013, pp. 106-112. doi: 10.4236/fns.2013.47A013.

[1]   Y. Palencia, “Qué son los Alimentos Funcionales.”

[2]   C. Thomson and A. Bloch, “Position of the American Dietetic Association: Functional Foods,” Journal of the American Diet Association, Vol. 99, No. 10, 1999, pp. 1278-1285. doi:10.1016/S0002-8223(99)00314-4

[3]   G. Olveira Fuster and I. González-Molero, “Probióticos Prebióticos en la Práctica Clínica,” Nutrición Hospitalaria, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2007, pp. 26-34.

[4]   G. Olagnero, A. Abad and S. Bendersky, “Alimentos Funcionales: Fibra, Prebióticos, Probióticos y Simbióticos,” 2007.

[5]   D. Marquina and A. Santos, “Probióticos, Prebióticos y Salud,” Actualidad SEM, Vol. 32, 2001, pp. 24-27.

[6]   J. Schrezenmeir and J. De Vrese, “Probiotics, Prebiotics and Synbiotics—Approaching a Definition,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 73, No. 2, 2001, pp. 361-364.

[7]   WHO, “Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases,” Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation, World Health Organ, Technical Report Series, 2003, pp. 1-149.

[8]   R. Meier and M. A. Gassull, “Consensus Recommendations on the Effects and Benefits of Fibre in Clinical Practice,” Clinical Nutrition Supplements, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2004, pp. 73-80. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2004.09.011

[9]   EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA), “Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre,” EFSA Journal, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2010, p. 1462.

[10]   Institute of Medicine, “Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrates, Fibers, Fats, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Aminoacids,” pp. 7-8.

[11]   Secretaría de Economía, “NOM-051-SCFI-/SSA1-2010: Especificaciones Generales de Etiquetadopara Alimentos y Bebidas No Alcohólicas Preenvasadas,” pp. 17-27.

[12]   Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) and New Zealand Ministry of Health Nutrient, “Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand Including Recommended Dietary Intakes,” p. 47.

[13]   Grupo Mercado Común, “Reglamen to Técnico Mercosursobre el Rotulado Nutricional de Alimentos Envasados,” p. 12.

[14]   D. H. Lewis, “Nomenclature and Diagrammatic Representation of Oligomeric Fructans—A Paper for Discussion,” New Phytologist, Vol. 124, No. 4, 1993, pp. 583594. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.1993.tb03848.x

[15]   J. Cummings and W. Frohlich, “Dietary Fiber Intakes in Europe: An Overview,” Commission of the European Community, DGXII-COST 92, 1993.

[16]   M. Roberfroid, G. Gibson and N. Delzenne, “Biochemistry of Oligofructose, a Non-Digestible Dietary Fiber: An Approach to Calculate Its Caloric Value,” Nutrition Reviews, Vol. 51, 1993, pp. 137-146. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.1993.tb03090.x

[17]   G. Gibson, E. Beatty and X. Wang, “Selective Stimulation of Bifidobacteria in the Human Colon by Oligofructose and Inulin,” Gastroenterology, Vol. 108, No. 4, 1995, pp. 975-982. doi:10.1016/0016-5085(95)90192-2

[18]   K. Yamashita, K. Kawai and K. Itakura, “Effect of Fructooligosaccharides on Blood Glucose and Serum Lipids in Diabetic Subjects,” Nutrition Research, Vol. 4, No. 6, 1984, pp. 961-966. doi:10.1016/S0271-5317(84)80075-5

[19]   J. Luo, S. Rizkala and C. Alamowitch, “Chronic Consumption of Short-Chain Fructooligosaccharides by Healthy Subjects Decreased Basal Glucose Production but Had No Effect on Insulin-Stimulated Glucose Metabolism,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 63, 1996, pp. 939-945.

[20]   E. Canzi, F. Brighenti and M. Casighari, “Prolonged Consumption of Inulin in Ready-to-Eat Breakfast Cereals: Effects on Intestinal Ecosystem, Bowel Habits and Lipid Metabolism,” Cost 92, Workshop on Dietary Fiber and Fermentation in the Colon, Helsinki, 1995, pp. 15-17.

[21]   C. Williams, “Effects of Inulin on Lipid Parameters in Humans,” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 129, No. 7, 1999, pp. 1471S-1473S.

[22]   M. Davidson, K. Maki and C. Synecki, “Effects of Dietary Inulin on Serum Lipids in Men and Women with Hypercholesterolemia,” Nutrition Research, Vol. 18, No. 3, 1998, pp. 503-517. doi:10.1016/S0271-5317(98)00038-4

[23]   J. Sellin, S. Meredith and S. Kelly, “Prospective Evaluation of Metabolic Bone Disease after Jejunoileal ByPass,” Gastroenterology, Vol. 87, 1984, pp. 123-129.

[24]   C. Colette, M. Gouttebel and L. Monnier, “Calcium Absorption Following Small Bowel Resection in Man. Evidencer for an Adaptive Response,” European Journal of Clinical Investigation, Vol. 16, No. 4, 1986, pp. 271-276. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2362.1986.tb01341.x

[25]   A. Ohta, M. Ohtsuki and S. Baba, “Effects of Fructooligosaccharides on the Absorption of Iron, Calcium and Magnesium in Iron-Deficient Anemic Rats,” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, Vol. 41, No. 3, 1995, pp. 281-291. doi:10.3177/jnsv.41.281

[26]   O. Chonan and R. Takahashi, “β1->4 Linked Galactooligosaccharides Stimulate Calcium and Magnesium Absorption from the Large Intestine,” Annual Report of Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research, Vol. 19, 1999, pp. 53-59.

[27]   O. Chonan, R. Takahashi and M. Watanuki, “Role of Activity of Gastrointestinal Microflora in Absorption of Calcium and Magnesium in Rats Fed β1->4 Linked Galactooligosaccharides,” Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, Vol. 65, No. 8, 2001, pp. 1872-1875. doi:10.1271/bbb.65.1872

[28]   K. Scholz-Ahrens, G. Schaafsma and E. Van Den Heuvel, “Effects of Prebiotics on Mineral Metabolism,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 73, 2001, pp. 459S464S.

[29]   A. Lorenzo Monterrubio, “Las Haciendas Pulqueras de México,” Universidad NacionalAutónoma de México, México, 2007.

[30]   C. Gibson, “Los Aztecas Bajo el Dominio Espaol 15191810,” 14th Edición, Siglo XXI, México, 2000.

[31]   Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, “Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, Doc 475: Mammalian Bone Marrow Chromosome Aberration Test,” 1997.

[32]   EPA, “Health Effects Test Guidelines OPPTS 870.5385 Mammalian Bone Marrow Chromosome Aberration Test,” 1998.

[33]   M. Hayashi, T. Morita and Y. Kodoma, “The Micronucleous Assay with Mouse Peripheral Blood Reticulocites Using Acridine Orange-Coated Slides,” Mutation Research, Vol. 245, No. 4, 1990, pp. 245-249. doi:10.1016/0165-7992(90)90153-B

[34]   M. C. García Rodríguez, V. López-Santiago and M. Altamirano-Lozano, “Effect of Chlorophyllin on Chromium Trioxide Induced Micronuclei in Polychromatic Erythrocytes of Mice Peripheral Blood,” Mutation Research, Vol. 496, No. 1-2, 2001, pp. 145-151. doi:10.1016/S1383-5718(01)00225-X

[35]   J. Gill, “Generalized Linear Models: A Unified Approach,” Sage University Papers Series on Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, 07-134, 2000.

[36]   M. J. Marques de Cantú, “Probabilidad y Estadística: Para Ciencias Químico-Biológicas,” McGraw-Hill, México, 1990.

[37]   M. L. Samuels and J. A. Witmer, “Statistics for the Life Sciences,” 2nd Edition, Prentice-Hall, 1999.

[38]   F. R. Johannsen, “Toxicological Profile of Carboxymethyl Inulin,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol. 41, No. 1, 2003, pp. 49-59. doi:10.1016/S0278-6915(02)00213-2

[39]   I. G. Carabin and W. G. Flamm, “Evaluation of Safety of Inulin and Oligofructose as Dietary Fiber,” Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, Vol. 30, No. 3, 1999, pp. 268-282. doi:10.1006/rtph.1999.1349