OJMH  Vol.3 No.3 , July 2013
Comparison of SCS and Green-Ampt Methods in Surface Runoff-Flooding Simulation for Klang Watershed in Malaysia
The main aim in this research is comparison the parameters of some storm events in the watershed using two loss models in Unit hydrograph method by HEC-HMS. SCS Curve Number and Green-Ampt methods by developing loss model as a major component in runoff and flood modeling. The study is conducted in the Kuala Lumpurwatershed with674 km2 area located in Klang basin inMalaysia. The catchment delineation is generated for the Klang watershed to get sub-watershed parameters by using HEC-GeoHMS extension in ARCGIS. Then all the necessary parameters are assigned to the models applied in this study to run the runoff and flood model. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the SCS-CN and Green-Ampt loss method applied in the Klang watershed. Estimated direct runoff and Peak discharge (r = 0.98) indicates a statistically positive correlations between the results of the study. And also it has been attempted to use objective functions in HEC-HMS (percent error peaks and percent error volume) to classify the methods. The selection of best method is on the base of considering least difference between the results of simulation to observed events in hydrographs so that it can address which model is suit for runoff-flood simulation in Klang watershed. Results showed that SCS CN and Green-Ampt methods, in three events by fitting with percent error in peak and percent error in volume had no significant difference.

Cite this paper
R. Kabiri, A. Chan and R. Bai, "Comparison of SCS and Green-Ampt Methods in Surface Runoff-Flooding Simulation for Klang Watershed in Malaysia," Open Journal of Modern Hydrology, Vol. 3 No. 3, 2013, pp. 102-114. doi: 10.4236/ojmh.2013.33014.

[1]   USDA-SCS, “National Engineering Handbook, Section 4-Hydrology,” USDA-SCS, Washington DC, 1985.

[2]   M. Marsik and P. Waylen, “An Application of the Distributed Hydrologic Model CASC2D to a Tropical Montane Watershed,” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 330, No. 3-4, 2006, pp. 481-495.

[3]   K. Warrach, M. Stieglitz, H. T. Mengelkamp and E. Raschke, “Advantages of a Topographically Controlled Run-off Simulation in a Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer Model,” Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2002, pp. 131-148. doi:10.1175/1525-7541(2002)003<0131:AOATCR>2.0.CO;2

[4]   R. Kumar, C. Chatterjee, R. D. Singh, A. K. Lohani and S. Kumar, “Runoff Estimation for an Ungauged Catchment Using Geomorphological Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph (GIUH) Model,” Hydrological Process, Vol. 21, No. 14, 2007, pp. 1829-1840. doi:10.1002/hyp.6318

[5]   A. Pandey and A. K. Sahu, “Generation of Curve Number Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System,” 2002. http://www.GISdevelopment.net

[6]   T. R. Nayak and R. K. Jaiswal, “Rainfall-Runoff Modelling Using Satellite Data and GIS for Bebas River in Madhya Pradesh,” Journal of the Institution of Engineers, Vol. 84, 2003, pp. 47-50.

[7]   X. Zhan and M. L. Huang, “ArcCN-Runoff: An ArcGIS Tool for Generating Curve Number and Runoff Maps,” Environmental Modelling and Software, Vol. 19, No. 10, 2004, pp. 875-879. doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2004.03.001

[8]   M. L. Gandini and E. J. Usunoff, “SCS Curve Number Estimation Using Remote Sensing NDVI in a GIS Environment,” Journal of Environmental Hydrology, Vol. 12, 2004, p. 16.

[9]   G. De Winnaar, G. Jewitt and M. Horan, “GIS-Based Approach for Identifying Potential Runoff Harvesting Sites in the Thukela River Basin, South Africa,” Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Vol. 32, 2007, pp. 1058-1067. doi:10.1016/j.pce.2007.07.009

[10]   C. Michel, A. Vazken and C. Perrin, “Soil Conservation Service Curve Number Method: How to Mend a Wrong Soil Moisture Accounting Procedure,” Water Resources Research, Vol. 41, No. 2, 2005, pp. 1-6.

[11]   L. E. Schneider and R. H. McCuen, “Statistical Guidelines for Curve Number Generation,” Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Vol. 131, No. 3, 2005, pp. 282-290.

[12]   S. Mishra, R. Sahu, T. Eldho and M. Jain, “An Improved IaS Relation Incorporating Antecedent Moisture in SCS-CN Methodology,” Water Resources Management, Vol. 20, No. 5, 2006, pp. 643-660. doi:10.1007/s11269-005-9000-4

[13]   R. K. Sahu, S. K. Mishra, T. I., Eldho and M. K., Jain, “An Advanced Soil Moisture Accounting Procedure for SCS Curve Number Method,” Hydrological Processes, Vol. 21, No. 21, 2007, pp. 2872-2881. doi:10.1002/hyp.6503

[14]   US Department Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, “Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds SCS Technical Release 55,” US Government Printing Office, Washington DC, 1986.

[15]   S. K. Mishra, M. K. Jain, R. P. Pandey and V. P. Singh, “Catchment Area-Based Evaluation of the AMC-Dependent SCS-CN-Inspired Rainfall-Runoff Models,” Journal of Hydrological Process, Vol. 19, No. 14, 2005, pp. 2701-2718. doi:10.1002/hyp.5736

[16]   B. P. Wilcox, W. J. Rawls, D. L Brakensiek and J. R. Wight, “Predicting Runoff from Rangeland Catchments: A Comparison of Two Models,” Water Resources Research, Vol. 26, No. 10, 1990, pp. 2401-2410.

[17]   X. C. Zhang, M. A. Nearing and L. M. Risse, “Estimation of Green-Ampt Conductivity Parameters: Part I. Row Crops,” Transactions of the ASAE, Vol. 38, No. 4, 1995, pp. 1069-1077.

[18]   X. C. Zhang, M. A. Nearing and L. M. Risse, “Estimation of Green-Ampt Conductivity Parameters: Part II. Perennial Crops,” Transactions of the ASAE, Vol. 38, No. 4, 1995, pp. 1079-1087.

[19]   M. A. Nearing, B. Y. Liu, L. M. Risse and X. Zhang, “Curve Numbers and Green-Ampt Effective Hydraulic Conductivities,” Journal of the American Water Resources Association, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1996, pp. 125-136. doi:10.1111/j.1752-1688.1996.tb03440.x

[20]   S. T. Chu, “Infiltration during Unsteady Rain,” Water Resources Research, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1970, pp. 461-466.

[21]   R. G. Mein and C. L. Larson, “Modeling Infiltration during a Steady Rain,” Water Resources Research, Vol. 9, No. 2, 1973, pp. 384-394. doi:10.1029/WR009i002p00384

[22]   W. J. Rawls and D. L. Brakensiek, “A Procedure to Predict Green and Ampt Infiltration Parameters,” Proceedings of the National Conference on Advances in Infiltration Chicago, Chicago, 1983, pp. 12-13.