JSSM  Vol.3 No.4 , December 2010
Urban Soundscape Informational Quantization: Validation Using a Comparative Approach
ABSTRACT
Through interaction with environmental parameters such as light or sound, urban and architectural spaces generate ambiences with identifiable characteristics. This notion of ambiences is related to the human being position through its perception of environmental physical phenomenon during a pedestrian walk. Presented work aims to evaluate, so as to characterize, the impact of sound ambiences (soundscape) onto an urban pedestrian pathway using GIS spatial dynamical mapping. To carry out this scheme, our research work within AMBIOFLUX project concerns spatial interaction between sound ambience (soundscape) and man urban spatial trajectory (soundwalk). Spatial impression of soundsources or soundmarks has to be both defined through acoustical measurement and perception informational evaluation. The remainder of this paper is dedicated to the evaluation’s methodology of the pedestrian pathway’s acoustic fingerprint using the GearScape spatial formalism described thereafter. Preliminary results we have obtained will also be presented and validated.

Cite this paper
nullP. Woloszyn and T. Leduc, "Urban Soundscape Informational Quantization: Validation Using a Comparative Approach," Journal of Service Science and Management, Vol. 3 No. 4, 2010, pp. 429-439. doi: 10.4236/jssm.2010.34049.
References
[1]   P. Woloszyn, “From Fractal Techniques to Subjective Quanti-fication,” In: Landscape and Architectural Model- ling Sympo-sium Proceedings, Sousse, pp. 1-6, 2002.

[2]   P. Woloszyn and D. Follut, “The Visualisation of the Urban Ambients Pa-rameters,” Computer Science for Environmental Protection, Gesellschaft für Informatik (GI), Bonn. Marburg (DE): Me-tropolis Verlag, 2000, pp. 173- 186.

[3]   T. Leduc, F. Gon-zález Cortés and E. Bocher, “OrbisGIS: a GIS for Scientific Simulation,” In: RMLL’2007, Amiens, France, 2007.

[4]   J. J. Gibson, “The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception,” Hillsdale, New Jersey, 1986.

[5]   K. Richardson, “Hyper-structure in Brain and Cognition,” psyc.99.10.031, 1999.

[6]   R. M. Sch?fer, “The Tuning of the World,” Knopf, New York Republished in The Soundscape: Our Sonic Envi-ronment and the Tuning of the World, Rochester, Vermont: Destiny Books, 1977.

[7]   P. Woloszyn and G. Bourdin, “Ur-ban HyperScape: A Community Game for Territorial Knowl-edge,” In: Second International Annual Conference of Territo-rial Intelligence, Huelva (Spain) October 24th-27th, 2007, Ob-servatorio Local de Empleo, Huelva, pp. 219-242.

[8]   P. Woloszyn and G. Bourdin, “The Hyperscape Project: Participative Game Informational Construction,” 6th Annual International Conference of Territorial Intelligence, Besan?on, 2008.

[9]   A. A. Moles, “Théorie Structurale de la Communication et Société,”Paris, Masson/CNET/ENST, 1988, p. 295.

[10]   R. G. Barker, “Structure of the Stream of Behavior,” Pr- oceedings of the 15th International Congress of Psychology, 1957, pp. 155-156.

[11]   R. G. Barker, “The Stream of Behavior as an Empirical Problem,” The Stream of Behavior, New York, Appleton of Century Crofts, 1963, pp. 1-22.

[12]   D. A. Salvo, “Boltzmann and Hertz on the Bild- conception of Physical Theory,” History of Science, Vol. 28, No. 79, 1990, pp. 380-398.

[13]   K. D. Bailey, “Social Entropy Theory: An Application of Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics in Human Ecology,” Advances in Human Ecology, Vol. 2, 1993, pp. 133-161.

[14]   C. E. Shannon and W. Weaver “The Mathematical Theory of Information Urbana,” University of Illinois Press, 1949.

[15]   E. T. Jaynes, “Where do We Stand on Maximum Entropy?” The Maximum Entropy Formalism, Raphael D. Levine and Myron Tribus, editors, The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1979, pp. 15-118.

[16]   EPA (U. S. Environmental Protection Agency), “Information on Levels of Environmental Noise Requisite to Protect Public Health and Welfare with an Adequate Margin of Safety,” EPA/ONAC 550/974004 Washington, D.C., 1974.

[17]   P. Woloszyn, “An Acoustic Ambience Study by Immersive Sound Recognition,” European Conference Building with Sounds, Paris, March 2005. http://rp.urbanisme.equipe-ment.gouv.fr/puca/agenda/DAFAG_WoloszynA_170305.pdf

[18]   G. K. Zipf, “Human Behaviour and the Principle of the Least Effort,” Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1949.

[19]   R. M. Schafer, “Music, Non-Music and the Soundscape,” Companion to Contemporary Musical Thought, Vol. 1, Paynter, J. Howell, T. R. Orton and P. Seymour, (ed.’s) (Routledge), 1992.

[20]   G. K. Zipf, “Selected Studies of the Principle of Relative Frequencies of Language,” Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1932.

[21]   B. C. Brookes, “The Derivation and Application of the Bradford-Zipf Distribution,” Journal of Documentation, Vol. 24, No. 4, 1968, pp. 247-265.

[22]   L. Egghe, “The Exact Place of Zipf’s and Pareto’s Law amongst the Classical Information Laws,” Scientometrics, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1991, pp. 93-106.

[23]   M. Kunz, M. Lotka and G. K. Zipf “Paper Dragons with Fuzzy Tails,” Scientometrics, Vol. 13, No. 5-6, 1988, pp. 289-297.

[24]   D. C. Blair, “Language and Representation in Information Retrieval,” Amsterdam, Elsevier, 1990.

[25]   W. Li, “Random Texts Exhibit Zipf’s-Law-Like Word Frequency Distribution,” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. 38, No. 6, 1992, pp. 1842-1845.

[26]   X. Gabaix, “Zips’s Law for Cities: An Explanation,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 114, No. 3, 1999, pp. 739-767. http://econ-www.mit.edu/faculty/download_pdf.php?id=530.

[27]   R. Kali, “The City as a Giant Component: A Random Graph Approach to Zipf’s Law,” Applied Economics Letters, Vol. 10, No. 11, 2003, pp. 717-720.

[28]   K. T. Soo, “Zipf’s Law for Cities: A Cross Country Investigation, Mimeo,” An Updated Version has been Published in 2005 in Regional Science and Urban Economics Vol. 35, No. 3, 2002, pp. 239-263.

[29]   J. D. Burgos and P. Moreno-Tovar, “Zipf-Scaling Behavior in the Immune System,” Biosystems, Vol. 39, No. 3, 1996, pp. 227-232.

[30]   R. A. Fairthorne, “Empirical Hyperbolic Distributions (Bradford-Zipf-Mandelbrot) for Bibliometric Description and Prediction,” Journal of Documentation, Vol. 25, No. 4, 1969, pp. 319-343.

[31]   J. Fedorowicz, “The Theoretical Foundation of Zipf’s Law and its Application to the Bibliographic Database Environment,” Journal of the American Society for Information Science, Vol. 33, No. 5, 1982, pp. 285-293.

[32]   W. Li and Y. Yang, “Zipf’s Law in Importance of Genes for Cancer Classification Using Microarray Data,” Journal of Theoretical Biology, 2002, pp. 539-551.

[33]   B. Manaris, T. Purewal and C. McCormick, “Progress Towards Recognizing and Classifying Beautiful Music with Computers: MIDI-Encoded Music and the Zipf-Mandelbrot Law,” Proceedings of the IEEE SoutheastCon 2002, New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2002, pp. 52-57.

[34]   B. Manaris and Alii, “Zipf’s Law, Music Classification, and Aesthetics,” Computer Music Journal, Vol. 29, No. 1, 2005, pp. 55-69.

[35]   B. Manaris et al., “Evolutionary Music and the Zipf-Mandelbrot Law: Progress towards Developing Fitness Functions for Pleasant Music,” Proceedings of Evo- MUSART2003-1st European Workshop on Evolutionary Music and Art, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2003, pp. 522- 534.

[36]   E. Dellandréa, P. Makris and N. Vincent, “Zipf analysis of Audio Signals,” Fractals Vol. 12, No. 1, World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, 2004, pp.73-85.

[37]   B. Mandelbrot, “Information Theory and Psycholinguistics,” R. C. Oldfield and J. C. Marchall, Eds., Language, Penguin Books, 1968.

[38]   J. R. Herring, “OpenGIS? Implementation Specification for Geographic information - Simple Feature Access-Part 1: Common architecture,” 2006. http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/sfs

[39]   J. R. Herring, “OpenGIS? Implementation Specification for Geographic Information - Simple Feature Access - Part 2: SQL option,” October 2006. http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/sfs

[40]   N. Long, E. Bocher, T. Leduc and G. Moreau. “Sensitivity of Spatial Indicators for Urban Terrain Characterization,” In: IEEE International Geoscience & Remote Sensing Symposium, IGARSS-2008, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A., 2008.

[41]   E. Bocher, T. Leduc and F. González Cortés, “UrbSAT: from Spatial SQL to Urban Indicator Definition and Production,” In: Free and Open Source Software for Geospatial Conference, FOSS4G’2008, Cape Town, South Africa, 2008.

[42]   T. Leduc, E. Bocher and G. Moreau, “GDMS-R: A Mixed SQL to Manage Raster and Vector Data,” In: J. Horak, L. Halounova, D. Kusendova, P. Rapant, and V. Vozenlek, Eds., Advances in Geoinformation Technologies, Chapter 4, pp. 43-56. VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic, 2009.

[43]   E. Bocher, T. Leduc, G. Moreau and F. Gonzalez Cortés, “GDMS: an Abstraction Layer to Enhance Spatial Data Infrastructures Usability,” In: 11th AGILE International Conference on Geographic Information Science, AGI- LE’2008, Girona, Spain, 2008.

[44]   T. Leduc, E. Bocher, F. Gonzalez Cortes and G. Moreau. “GDMS: A Mixed Spatial Semantic to Enhance Urban Knowledge,” In: 1st ECN and Keio University Global COE Joint Workshop, Nantes, France, 2008.

[45]   A. Léobon, “La Qualification des Ambiances Sonores Urbaines”, Revue Natures - Sciences - Sociétés. Vol. III, No. 1, pp. 26-41, 1995.

[46]   A. Léobon, P. Woloszyn, M. Demais and E. Pasquier, A-V. Blain, “Identité Sonore et Qualité de vie en Centre Ville (Quartier Graslin, Nantes),” Rapport de Recherche SRETIE, Ministère de l’Environnement, pp. 124, 1994.

[47]   A. Léobon, “Analyse Sensorielle d’un Environnement Sonore Urbain,” Colloque L’Acoustique et la Ville, EAPLD, pp. 30-34, 1991.

[48]   A. Léobon, “Qualification et Cartographie des Ambiances Sonores du Centre Historique Nantais,” Rapport de Re- cherche Ville de Nantes, p. 186, 1995.

 
 
Top