Background: Fluids collect in the pleural space under different conditions and they are of different types. Detailed study of demographic attributes and aetiology of pleural collections has not been well reported in Africa. Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the demographic attributes and aetiology of common pleural space fluid collections. Methods: The sample population consisted of referrals received via clinics, admission through the emergency centre and wards. We noted their biodata, hospital identification numbers, ages and gender and other relevant parameters. Data analysis was done with special interest in gender-based diseases like ovarian carcinoma prostatic carcinoma and the like. Results: There were 372 patients over a 55-month period. The M:F ratio was 1:1 approximately. The combined mean age was 37.8 ± 0.92 years at 95% confidence interval. Their distribution was negatively skewed and it was leptokurtic. The age bracket of 20 - 49 had 65.6% of cases. There was gender based disparity in ages. Discussion: Malignant effusions constituted majority of sample size and the right side was consistently affected more often than the left side. Conclusion: Advanced malignancies are the commonest causes of pleural effusion. There is ongoing epidemiologic transition of diseases as the burden of non-communicable diseases is now juxtaposed with that of communicable diseases in Africa.
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