At Kuwana illegal dumping site in Japan, where hazardous waste was illegally dumped, groundwater was severely contaminated by Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). Groundwater was already remedied by conducting Pump-and-Treat (P&T) after containment of all the waste by vertical slurry walls from 2002 to 2007. However, 1,4-dioxane was detected in both waste and groundwater outside of slurry walls after it was newly added into Japan environmental standards in late 2009, which suggested that the walls did not contain 1,4-dioxane completely. Our previous study developed a model to predict the 1,4-dioxane distribution in groundwater after the previous remediation at the site. In this study, numerical simulation was applied for remediation planning at the site based on the concept of Verified Follow Up (VF-UP) that had been proposed as a new approach to complete remediation effectively with consideration of future risks. The amount of waste to be removed and pumping plans were discussed by numerical simulation to achieve the remedial objective in which 1,4-dioxane in groundwater outside of walls is remedied within 10 years and 1,4-dioxane spreading throughout the walls is prevented in the case where a portion of waste is remained. Firstly, the amount of waste to be removed considering pumping plans for P&T was determined by scenario analysis. As a result, at least two-third of waste should be removed by combining with P&T. However, if the waste is remained, future risks of 1,4-dioxane spreading through the slurry walls may occur. Our simulation suggested that groundwater within the remaining waste must be pumped up at least 20 m3/d for containment of 1,4-dioxane within the remaining waste. In conclusion, our numerical simulation determined the amount of waste to be removed and the pumping plans for P&T to achieve the remedial objective effectively considering future risks based on the concept of VF-UP.
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