An Active-Only Temperature-Insensitive Current-Mode Biquad Filter Based on Differentiator Structures Employing CCCCTAs

Affiliation(s)

Department of Teacher Training in Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Technical Education, King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok, Thailand.

Department of Engineering Education, Faculty of Industrial Education, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand.

Department of Teacher Training in Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Technical Education, King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok, Thailand.

Department of Engineering Education, Faculty of Industrial Education, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand.

ABSTRACT

This article presents an active-only current-mode universal biquad filter performing three standard functions: low-pass, high-pass and band-pass function, which can be readily modified to achieve the rest functions (band-stop and all-pass). The circuit principle is based on active-only circuit designed by using differentiators which are constructed from current controlled current conveyor transconductance amplifier (CCCCTA) cooperating with an internally frequency compensated operational amplifier (OA). The features of the circuit are that: the pole frequency and quality factor can be independently tuned via the input bias currents and it is ideally temperature-insensitive, its circuit description is very simple, consisting of 3 CCCCTAs and 2 operational amplifiers, and the proposed circuit is very appropriate for further developing into integrated circuit architecture. The PSpice simulation results are shown. The given results agree well with the theoretical anticipation.

This article presents an active-only current-mode universal biquad filter performing three standard functions: low-pass, high-pass and band-pass function, which can be readily modified to achieve the rest functions (band-stop and all-pass). The circuit principle is based on active-only circuit designed by using differentiators which are constructed from current controlled current conveyor transconductance amplifier (CCCCTA) cooperating with an internally frequency compensated operational amplifier (OA). The features of the circuit are that: the pole frequency and quality factor can be independently tuned via the input bias currents and it is ideally temperature-insensitive, its circuit description is very simple, consisting of 3 CCCCTAs and 2 operational amplifiers, and the proposed circuit is very appropriate for further developing into integrated circuit architecture. The PSpice simulation results are shown. The given results agree well with the theoretical anticipation.

Cite this paper

Lawanwisut, S. , Siripruchyanun, M. and Jaikla, W. (2013) An Active-Only Temperature-Insensitive Current-Mode Biquad Filter Based on Differentiator Structures Employing CCCCTAs.*Circuits and Systems*, **4**, 280-286. doi: 10.4236/cs.2013.43038.

Lawanwisut, S. , Siripruchyanun, M. and Jaikla, W. (2013) An Active-Only Temperature-Insensitive Current-Mode Biquad Filter Based on Differentiator Structures Employing CCCCTAs.

References

[1] C. A. S. Sedra and K. C. Smith, “Microelectronic Circuits,” 5th Edition, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Orlando, 2003.

[2] M. A. Ibrahim, S. Minaei and H. A. Kuntman, “A 22.5 MHz Current-Mode KHN-Biquad Using Differential Voltage Current Conveyor and Grounded Passive Elements,” International Journal of Electronics and Communications, Vol. 59, No. 5, 2005, pp. 311-318. doi:10.1016/j.aeue.2004.11.027

[3] C. Toumazou, F. J. Lidgey and D. G. Haigh, “Analogue IC Design: The Current-Mode Approach,” Peter Peregrinus, Stevenage, 1990.

[4] C. Sakul, W. Jaikla and K. Dejhan, “New Resistor-Less Current-Mode Quadrature Oscillators Using 2 CCCDTAs and Grounded Capacitors,” International Journal of Radioengineering, Vol. 20, No. 4, 2011, pp. 890-897.

[5] M. T. Abuelma’atti and H. A. Alzaher, “Universal Three inputs and One output Current-mode Filter without External Passive Elements,” Electronics Letters, Vol. 33, No. 4, 1997, pp. 281-283. doi:10.1049/el:19970233

[6] A. K Singh and R. Senani, “Low-Component-Count Active Only Immittances and Their Application in Realizing Simple Multifunction Biquads,” Electronics Letters, Vol. 34, No. 8, 1998, pp. 718-719. doi:10.1049/el:19980547

[7] T. Tsukutani, M. Higashimura, Y. Sumi and Y. Fukul, “Electronically Tunable Current-Mode Active-Only Biquadratic Filter,” International Journal of Electronics, Vol. 87, 2000, pp. 307-314. doi:10.1080/002072100132219

[8] M. T. Abbuelma’atti and M. A. Al-Qahtani, “Low Component Second-Generation Current Conveyor-Based Multiphase Sinusoidal Oscillator,” International Journal of Electronics, Vol. 84, No. 1, 1998, pp. 45-52. doi:10.1080/002072198134986

[9] M. T. Abuelma’atti and H. A. Alzaher, “Active-Only Sinusoidal Oscillator,” Elsevier Advanced Technology, Microelectronics Journal, Vol. 29, 1998, pp. 461-464. doi:10.1016/S0026-2692(97)00104-3

[10] S. Minaei, O. Cicekoglu, H. Kuntman and S. Turkoz, “Electronically Tunable, Active-Only Floating Inductance Simulation,” International Journal of Electronics, Vol. 89, No. 12, 2002, pp. 905-912. doi:10.1080/0020721031000120470

[11] C. Chang and S. Pai, “Universal Current-Mode OTA-C Biquad with the Minimum Components,” Proceedings of IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, Vol. 47, No. 8, 2000, pp. 1235-1238. doi:10.1109/81.873877

[12] C. Chang, B. Al-Hashimi and J. N. Ross, “Unified Active Filter Biquad Structure,” IEE Proceedings of Circuits, Devices and Systems, Vol. 151, No. 4, 2004, pp. 273-277. doi:10.1049/ip-cds:20040132

[13] M. T. Abuelma’atti and A. Bentrcia, “New Universal Current-Mode Multiple-Input Multiple-Output OTA-C Filter,” The 2004 IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Circuits and Systems, Tainan, 6-9 December 2004, pp. 10371039.

[14] A. Fabre, O. Saaid, F. Wiest and C. Boucheron, “Current Controlled Bandpass Filter Based on Translinear Converyors,” Electronics Letters, Vol. 31, No. 20, 1995, pp. 1727-1728. doi:10.1049/el:19951225

[15] M. Somdunyakanok, “Three Inputs Single Output Current mode Universal Filter,” Proceeding of the 2009 12th IEEE International Analog VLSI Workshop, Chiang Mai, 18-20 November 2009, pp.113-116.

[16] R. Prokop and V. Musil, “New Modern Circuit Block CCTA and Some Its Applications,” Proceedings the Fourteenth International Scientific and Applied Science Conference—Electronics, TU Sofia, Sofia, 2005, pp. 93-98.

[17] M. Siripruchyanun and W. Jaikla, “Current Controlled Current Conveyor Transconductance Amplifier (CCCCTA): A Building Block for Analog Signal Processing,” International Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 90, No. 6, 2008, pp. 443-453.

[18] S. Lawanwisut and M. Siripruchyanun, “An Active-Only Current-Mode Electronically Controllable Multifunction Biquadratic Filter Using CCCCTAs,” Proceedings of the 33rd Electrical Engineering Conference, 2010, pp. 10971100.

[19] W. Jaikla, A. Noppakarn and S. Lawanwisut, “New Gain Controllable Resistor-Less Current-Mode First Order Allpass Filter and Its Application,” International Journal of Radioengineering, Vol. 21, No. 1, 2012, pp. 312-316.

[20] S. Lawanwisut and M. Siripruchyanun, “An Active-Only High-Output Impedance Current-Mode Quadrature Oscillator Using CCCCTA Based-Lossless Sifferentiators,” Proceedings of IEEE TENCON, Singapore, 23-26 January 2009, pp. 1-4.

[21] W. Jaikla and M. Siripruchyanun, “A Simple Oscillator Using only Single CCCCTA and Grounded Capacitors,” Journal of Research and Development Rajamangala University of Technology, Tawan-ok, 2009, pp. 55-59.

[22] P. Silapan, T. Srisakul, W. Jaikla and M. Siripruchyanun, “Current Controlled CCTA (CCCCTA) Based-Novel Floating and Grounded Inductance Simulators,” Journal of Research and development Rajamangala University of Technology, Tawan-ok, 2009, pp. 48-54.

[23] A. Toker, O. Cicekoglu, S. Ozacan and H. Kuntman, “High Output Impedance Transadmittance type Continuous Time Multifunction Filter with Minimum Active Elements,” International Journal of Electronics, Vol. 88, No. 10, 2001, pp. 1085-1091. doi:10.1080/00207210110071260

[24] M. T. Abuelma’atti and A. Bentrcia, “Multi-Function Active-Only Current-Mode Filter with Three Input and One Output,” International Journal of Electronics, Vol. 85, No. 4, 1998, pp. 431-435. doi:10.1080/002072198133978

[25] S. Lawanwisut and M. Siripruchyanun, “Active-Only Current-Mode KHN Filter with Electronic Controllability,” The 3rd International Conference on Technical Education, 2010, pp. 46-51.

[26] D. R. Frey, “Log-Domain Filtering: An Approach to Current Mode Filtering,” Proceedings of IEEE Circuits, Devices and Systems, Vol. 140, No. 6, 1993, pp. 406-416. doi:10.1049/ip-g-2.1993.0066

[1] C. A. S. Sedra and K. C. Smith, “Microelectronic Circuits,” 5th Edition, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Orlando, 2003.

[2] M. A. Ibrahim, S. Minaei and H. A. Kuntman, “A 22.5 MHz Current-Mode KHN-Biquad Using Differential Voltage Current Conveyor and Grounded Passive Elements,” International Journal of Electronics and Communications, Vol. 59, No. 5, 2005, pp. 311-318. doi:10.1016/j.aeue.2004.11.027

[3] C. Toumazou, F. J. Lidgey and D. G. Haigh, “Analogue IC Design: The Current-Mode Approach,” Peter Peregrinus, Stevenage, 1990.

[4] C. Sakul, W. Jaikla and K. Dejhan, “New Resistor-Less Current-Mode Quadrature Oscillators Using 2 CCCDTAs and Grounded Capacitors,” International Journal of Radioengineering, Vol. 20, No. 4, 2011, pp. 890-897.

[5] M. T. Abuelma’atti and H. A. Alzaher, “Universal Three inputs and One output Current-mode Filter without External Passive Elements,” Electronics Letters, Vol. 33, No. 4, 1997, pp. 281-283. doi:10.1049/el:19970233

[6] A. K Singh and R. Senani, “Low-Component-Count Active Only Immittances and Their Application in Realizing Simple Multifunction Biquads,” Electronics Letters, Vol. 34, No. 8, 1998, pp. 718-719. doi:10.1049/el:19980547

[7] T. Tsukutani, M. Higashimura, Y. Sumi and Y. Fukul, “Electronically Tunable Current-Mode Active-Only Biquadratic Filter,” International Journal of Electronics, Vol. 87, 2000, pp. 307-314. doi:10.1080/002072100132219

[8] M. T. Abbuelma’atti and M. A. Al-Qahtani, “Low Component Second-Generation Current Conveyor-Based Multiphase Sinusoidal Oscillator,” International Journal of Electronics, Vol. 84, No. 1, 1998, pp. 45-52. doi:10.1080/002072198134986

[9] M. T. Abuelma’atti and H. A. Alzaher, “Active-Only Sinusoidal Oscillator,” Elsevier Advanced Technology, Microelectronics Journal, Vol. 29, 1998, pp. 461-464. doi:10.1016/S0026-2692(97)00104-3

[10] S. Minaei, O. Cicekoglu, H. Kuntman and S. Turkoz, “Electronically Tunable, Active-Only Floating Inductance Simulation,” International Journal of Electronics, Vol. 89, No. 12, 2002, pp. 905-912. doi:10.1080/0020721031000120470

[11] C. Chang and S. Pai, “Universal Current-Mode OTA-C Biquad with the Minimum Components,” Proceedings of IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, Vol. 47, No. 8, 2000, pp. 1235-1238. doi:10.1109/81.873877

[12] C. Chang, B. Al-Hashimi and J. N. Ross, “Unified Active Filter Biquad Structure,” IEE Proceedings of Circuits, Devices and Systems, Vol. 151, No. 4, 2004, pp. 273-277. doi:10.1049/ip-cds:20040132

[13] M. T. Abuelma’atti and A. Bentrcia, “New Universal Current-Mode Multiple-Input Multiple-Output OTA-C Filter,” The 2004 IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Circuits and Systems, Tainan, 6-9 December 2004, pp. 10371039.

[14] A. Fabre, O. Saaid, F. Wiest and C. Boucheron, “Current Controlled Bandpass Filter Based on Translinear Converyors,” Electronics Letters, Vol. 31, No. 20, 1995, pp. 1727-1728. doi:10.1049/el:19951225

[15] M. Somdunyakanok, “Three Inputs Single Output Current mode Universal Filter,” Proceeding of the 2009 12th IEEE International Analog VLSI Workshop, Chiang Mai, 18-20 November 2009, pp.113-116.

[16] R. Prokop and V. Musil, “New Modern Circuit Block CCTA and Some Its Applications,” Proceedings the Fourteenth International Scientific and Applied Science Conference—Electronics, TU Sofia, Sofia, 2005, pp. 93-98.

[17] M. Siripruchyanun and W. Jaikla, “Current Controlled Current Conveyor Transconductance Amplifier (CCCCTA): A Building Block for Analog Signal Processing,” International Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 90, No. 6, 2008, pp. 443-453.

[18] S. Lawanwisut and M. Siripruchyanun, “An Active-Only Current-Mode Electronically Controllable Multifunction Biquadratic Filter Using CCCCTAs,” Proceedings of the 33rd Electrical Engineering Conference, 2010, pp. 10971100.

[19] W. Jaikla, A. Noppakarn and S. Lawanwisut, “New Gain Controllable Resistor-Less Current-Mode First Order Allpass Filter and Its Application,” International Journal of Radioengineering, Vol. 21, No. 1, 2012, pp. 312-316.

[20] S. Lawanwisut and M. Siripruchyanun, “An Active-Only High-Output Impedance Current-Mode Quadrature Oscillator Using CCCCTA Based-Lossless Sifferentiators,” Proceedings of IEEE TENCON, Singapore, 23-26 January 2009, pp. 1-4.

[21] W. Jaikla and M. Siripruchyanun, “A Simple Oscillator Using only Single CCCCTA and Grounded Capacitors,” Journal of Research and Development Rajamangala University of Technology, Tawan-ok, 2009, pp. 55-59.

[22] P. Silapan, T. Srisakul, W. Jaikla and M. Siripruchyanun, “Current Controlled CCTA (CCCCTA) Based-Novel Floating and Grounded Inductance Simulators,” Journal of Research and development Rajamangala University of Technology, Tawan-ok, 2009, pp. 48-54.

[23] A. Toker, O. Cicekoglu, S. Ozacan and H. Kuntman, “High Output Impedance Transadmittance type Continuous Time Multifunction Filter with Minimum Active Elements,” International Journal of Electronics, Vol. 88, No. 10, 2001, pp. 1085-1091. doi:10.1080/00207210110071260

[24] M. T. Abuelma’atti and A. Bentrcia, “Multi-Function Active-Only Current-Mode Filter with Three Input and One Output,” International Journal of Electronics, Vol. 85, No. 4, 1998, pp. 431-435. doi:10.1080/002072198133978

[25] S. Lawanwisut and M. Siripruchyanun, “Active-Only Current-Mode KHN Filter with Electronic Controllability,” The 3rd International Conference on Technical Education, 2010, pp. 46-51.

[26] D. R. Frey, “Log-Domain Filtering: An Approach to Current Mode Filtering,” Proceedings of IEEE Circuits, Devices and Systems, Vol. 140, No. 6, 1993, pp. 406-416. doi:10.1049/ip-g-2.1993.0066