An Adaptive Response Compensation Technique for the Constant-Current Hot-Wire Anemometer

ABSTRACT

An adaptive response compensation technique has been proposed to compensate for the response lag of the constant-current hot-wire anemometer (CCA) by taking advantage of digital signal processing technology. First, we have developed a simple response compensation scheme based on a precise theoretical expression for the frequency response of the CCA (Kaifuku*et al*. 2010, 2011), and verified its effectiveness experimentally for hot-wires of 5 μm, 10 μm and 20 μm in diameter. Then, another novel technique based on a two-sensor probe technique—originally developed for the response compensation of fine-wire thermocouples (Tagawa and Ohta 1997; Tagawa *et al*. 1998)—has been proposed for estimating thermal time-constants of hot-wires to realize the *in-situ* response compensation of the CCA. To demonstrate the usefulness of the CCA, we have applied the response compensation schemes to multipoint velocity measure- ment of a turbulent wake flow formed behind a circular cylinder by using a CCA probe consisting of 16 hot-wires, which were driven simultaneously by a very simple constant-current circuit. As a result, the proposed response compensation techniques for the CCA work quite successfully and are capable of improving the response speed of the CCA to obtain reliable measurements comparable to those by the commercially-available constant-temperature hot-wire anemometer (CTA).

An adaptive response compensation technique has been proposed to compensate for the response lag of the constant-current hot-wire anemometer (CCA) by taking advantage of digital signal processing technology. First, we have developed a simple response compensation scheme based on a precise theoretical expression for the frequency response of the CCA (Kaifuku

Cite this paper

S. Khine, T. Houra and M. Tagawa, "An Adaptive Response Compensation Technique for the Constant-Current Hot-Wire Anemometer,"*Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics*, Vol. 3 No. 2, 2013, pp. 95-108. doi: 10.4236/ojfd.2013.32013.

S. Khine, T. Houra and M. Tagawa, "An Adaptive Response Compensation Technique for the Constant-Current Hot-Wire Anemometer,"

References

[1] J. O. Hinze, “Turbulence,” 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1975.

[2] G. Comte-Bellot, “Hot-Wire Anemometry,” Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 8, 1976, pp. 209-231. doi:10.1146/annurev.fl.08.010176.001233

[3] G. Comte-Bellot, “Springer Handbook of Experimental Fluid Mechanics,” In: C. Tropea, A. L. Yarin and J. F. Foss, Eds., Sec 5.2.1-5.2.7, Springer, Berlin, 2007, pp. 229-283.

[4] A. E. Perry, “Hot-wire Anemometry,” Oxford University Press, New York, 1982.

[5] H. H. Bruun, “Hot-Wire Anemometry-Principles and Signal Analysis,” Oxford University Press, New York, 1995.

[6] K. Kaifuku, S. M. Khine, T. Houra and M. Tagawa, “Response Compensation of Constant-Current Hot-Wire Anemometer,” Proceedings of the 21st International Symposium on Transport Phenomena, Kaohsiung, 2-5 November 2010, pp. 816-822.

[7] K. Kaifuku, S. M. Khine, T. Houra and M. Tagawa, “Response Compensation for Constant-Current Hot-Wire Anemometry Based on Frequency Response Analysis,” Proceedings of ASME/JSME 2011, 8th Thermal Engineering Joint Conference, Honolulu, 13-17 March 2011, Article ID: T10164.

[8] I. Kidron, “Measurement of the Transfer Function Hot-Wire and Hot-Film Turbulence Transducers,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 15, No. 3, 1966, pp. 76-81. doi:10.1109/TIM.1966.4313512

[9] M. Tagawa and Y. Ohta, “Two-Thermocouple Probe for Fluctuating Temperature Measurement in Combustion— Rational Estimation of Mean and Fluctuating Time Constants,” Combustion and Flame, Vol. 109, No. 4, 1997, pp. 549-560. doi:10.1016/S0010-2180(97)00044-8

[10] M. Tagawa, T. Shimoji and Y. Ohta, “A Two-Thermocouple Technique for Estimating Thermocouple Time Constants in Flows with Combustion: In Situ Parameter Identification of a First-Order Lag System,” Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 69, No. 9, 1998, pp. 3370-3378. doi:10.1063/1.1149103

[11] R. F. Blackwelder and R. E. Kaplan, “On the Wall Structure of the Turbulent Boundary Layer,” Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 76, No. 1, 1976, pp. 89-112. doi:10.1017/S0022112076003145

[12] M. N. Glauser and W. K. George, “Application of Multipoint Measurements for Flow Characterization,” Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol. 5, No. 5, 1992, pp. 617-632. doi:10.1016/0894-1777(92)90018-Z

[13] T. Houra and Y. Nagano, “Spatio-Temporal Turbulent Structures of Thermal Boundary Layer Subjected to Non-Equilibrium Adverse Pressure Gradient,” International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, Vol. 29, No. 3, 2008, pp. 591-601. doi:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2008.03.004

[14] K. Kato, K. Kaifuku and M. Tagawa, “Fluctuating Temperature Measurement by a Fine-Wire Thermocouple Probe: Influences of Physical Properties and Insulation Coating on the Frequency Response,” Measurement Science and Technology, Vol. 18, No. 3, 2007, pp. 779-789. doi:10.1088/0957-0233/18/3/030

[15] J. D. Li, “Dynamic Response of Constant Temperature Hot-Wire System in Turbulence Velocity Measurements,” Measurement Science and Technology, Vol. 15, No. 9, 2004, pp. 1835-1847. doi:10.1088/0957-0233/15/9/022

[16] A. Berson, G. Poignand and P. Blanc-Benon and G. Comte-Bellot, “Capture of Instantaneous Temperature in Oscillating Flows: Use of Constant-Voltage Anemometry to Correct the Thermal Lag of Cold Wires Operated by Constant-Current Anemometry,” Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 81, No. 1, 2010, Article ID: 015102. doi:10.1063/1.3274155

[17] D. C. Collis and M. J. Williams, “Two-Dimensional Convection from Heated Wires at Low Reynolds Numbers,” Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1959, pp. 357-384. doi:10.1017/S0022112059000696

[18] M. Tagawa, S. Nagaya and Y. Ohta, “Simultaneous Measurement of Velocity and Temperature in High-Temperature Turbulent Flows: A Combination of LDV and Three-Wire Temperature Probe,” Experiments in Fluids, Vol. 30, No. 2, 2001, pp. 143-152. doi:10.1007/s003480000149

[19] T. Tsuji, Y. Nagano and M. Tagawa, “Frequency Response and Instantaneous Temperature Profile of Cold-Wire Sensor for Fluid Temperature Fluctuation Measurements,” Experiments in Fluids, Vol. 13, 1992, pp. 171-178. doi:10.1007/BF00218164

[20] M. Tagawa, K. Kato and Y. Ohta, “Response Compensation of Fine-Wire Temperature Sensor,” Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 76, No. 9, 2005, Article ID: 094904.

[21] M. Tagawa, K. Kato and Y. Ohta, “Response Compensation of Thermistors: Frequency Response and Identification of Thermal Time Constant,” Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 74, No. 3, 2003, pp. 1350-1358. doi:10.1063/1.1542668

[1] J. O. Hinze, “Turbulence,” 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1975.

[2] G. Comte-Bellot, “Hot-Wire Anemometry,” Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 8, 1976, pp. 209-231. doi:10.1146/annurev.fl.08.010176.001233

[3] G. Comte-Bellot, “Springer Handbook of Experimental Fluid Mechanics,” In: C. Tropea, A. L. Yarin and J. F. Foss, Eds., Sec 5.2.1-5.2.7, Springer, Berlin, 2007, pp. 229-283.

[4] A. E. Perry, “Hot-wire Anemometry,” Oxford University Press, New York, 1982.

[5] H. H. Bruun, “Hot-Wire Anemometry-Principles and Signal Analysis,” Oxford University Press, New York, 1995.

[6] K. Kaifuku, S. M. Khine, T. Houra and M. Tagawa, “Response Compensation of Constant-Current Hot-Wire Anemometer,” Proceedings of the 21st International Symposium on Transport Phenomena, Kaohsiung, 2-5 November 2010, pp. 816-822.

[7] K. Kaifuku, S. M. Khine, T. Houra and M. Tagawa, “Response Compensation for Constant-Current Hot-Wire Anemometry Based on Frequency Response Analysis,” Proceedings of ASME/JSME 2011, 8th Thermal Engineering Joint Conference, Honolulu, 13-17 March 2011, Article ID: T10164.

[8] I. Kidron, “Measurement of the Transfer Function Hot-Wire and Hot-Film Turbulence Transducers,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 15, No. 3, 1966, pp. 76-81. doi:10.1109/TIM.1966.4313512

[9] M. Tagawa and Y. Ohta, “Two-Thermocouple Probe for Fluctuating Temperature Measurement in Combustion— Rational Estimation of Mean and Fluctuating Time Constants,” Combustion and Flame, Vol. 109, No. 4, 1997, pp. 549-560. doi:10.1016/S0010-2180(97)00044-8

[10] M. Tagawa, T. Shimoji and Y. Ohta, “A Two-Thermocouple Technique for Estimating Thermocouple Time Constants in Flows with Combustion: In Situ Parameter Identification of a First-Order Lag System,” Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 69, No. 9, 1998, pp. 3370-3378. doi:10.1063/1.1149103

[11] R. F. Blackwelder and R. E. Kaplan, “On the Wall Structure of the Turbulent Boundary Layer,” Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 76, No. 1, 1976, pp. 89-112. doi:10.1017/S0022112076003145

[12] M. N. Glauser and W. K. George, “Application of Multipoint Measurements for Flow Characterization,” Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol. 5, No. 5, 1992, pp. 617-632. doi:10.1016/0894-1777(92)90018-Z

[13] T. Houra and Y. Nagano, “Spatio-Temporal Turbulent Structures of Thermal Boundary Layer Subjected to Non-Equilibrium Adverse Pressure Gradient,” International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, Vol. 29, No. 3, 2008, pp. 591-601. doi:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2008.03.004

[14] K. Kato, K. Kaifuku and M. Tagawa, “Fluctuating Temperature Measurement by a Fine-Wire Thermocouple Probe: Influences of Physical Properties and Insulation Coating on the Frequency Response,” Measurement Science and Technology, Vol. 18, No. 3, 2007, pp. 779-789. doi:10.1088/0957-0233/18/3/030

[15] J. D. Li, “Dynamic Response of Constant Temperature Hot-Wire System in Turbulence Velocity Measurements,” Measurement Science and Technology, Vol. 15, No. 9, 2004, pp. 1835-1847. doi:10.1088/0957-0233/15/9/022

[16] A. Berson, G. Poignand and P. Blanc-Benon and G. Comte-Bellot, “Capture of Instantaneous Temperature in Oscillating Flows: Use of Constant-Voltage Anemometry to Correct the Thermal Lag of Cold Wires Operated by Constant-Current Anemometry,” Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 81, No. 1, 2010, Article ID: 015102. doi:10.1063/1.3274155

[17] D. C. Collis and M. J. Williams, “Two-Dimensional Convection from Heated Wires at Low Reynolds Numbers,” Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1959, pp. 357-384. doi:10.1017/S0022112059000696

[18] M. Tagawa, S. Nagaya and Y. Ohta, “Simultaneous Measurement of Velocity and Temperature in High-Temperature Turbulent Flows: A Combination of LDV and Three-Wire Temperature Probe,” Experiments in Fluids, Vol. 30, No. 2, 2001, pp. 143-152. doi:10.1007/s003480000149

[19] T. Tsuji, Y. Nagano and M. Tagawa, “Frequency Response and Instantaneous Temperature Profile of Cold-Wire Sensor for Fluid Temperature Fluctuation Measurements,” Experiments in Fluids, Vol. 13, 1992, pp. 171-178. doi:10.1007/BF00218164

[20] M. Tagawa, K. Kato and Y. Ohta, “Response Compensation of Fine-Wire Temperature Sensor,” Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 76, No. 9, 2005, Article ID: 094904.

[21] M. Tagawa, K. Kato and Y. Ohta, “Response Compensation of Thermistors: Frequency Response and Identification of Thermal Time Constant,” Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 74, No. 3, 2003, pp. 1350-1358. doi:10.1063/1.1542668