High Impedance Fault Detection of Distribution Network by Phasor Measurement Units

Author(s)
Mohsen Ghalei Monfared Zanjani,
Hossein Kazemi Karegar,
Hasan Ashrafi Niaki,
Mina Ghalei Monfared Zanjani

Affiliation(s)

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University (SBU), Tehran, Iran..

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University (SBU), Tehran, Iran..

ABSTRACT

This paper proposes a new algorithm for High Impedance Fault (HIF) detection using Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU). This type of faults is difficult to detect by over current protection relays because of low fault current. In this paper, an index based on phasors change is proposed for HIF detection. The phasors are measured by PMU to obtain the square summation of errors. Two types of data are used for error calculation. The first one is sampled data and the second one is estimated data. But this index is not enough to declare presence of a HIF. Therefore another index introduces in order to distinguish the load switching from HIF. Second index utilizes 3rd harmonic current angle because this number of harmonic has a special behaviour during HIF. The verification of the proposed method is done by different simulation cases in EMTP/MATLAB.

This paper proposes a new algorithm for High Impedance Fault (HIF) detection using Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU). This type of faults is difficult to detect by over current protection relays because of low fault current. In this paper, an index based on phasors change is proposed for HIF detection. The phasors are measured by PMU to obtain the square summation of errors. Two types of data are used for error calculation. The first one is sampled data and the second one is estimated data. But this index is not enough to declare presence of a HIF. Therefore another index introduces in order to distinguish the load switching from HIF. Second index utilizes 3rd harmonic current angle because this number of harmonic has a special behaviour during HIF. The verification of the proposed method is done by different simulation cases in EMTP/MATLAB.

Cite this paper

M. Zanjani, H. Karegar, H. Niaki and M. Zanjani, "High Impedance Fault Detection of Distribution Network by Phasor Measurement Units,"*Smart Grid and Renewable Energy*, Vol. 4 No. 3, 2013, pp. 297-305. doi: 10.4236/sgre.2013.43036.

M. Zanjani, H. Karegar, H. Niaki and M. Zanjani, "High Impedance Fault Detection of Distribution Network by Phasor Measurement Units,"

References

[1] G. A. E. Emanuel, D. Cyganski, J. A. Orr, S. Shiller and E. M. Gulachenski, “High Impedance Fault Arcing on Sandy Soil in 15 kV Distribution Feeders: Contributions to the Evaluation of the Low Frequency Spectrum,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1990, pp. 676-686. doi:10.1109/61.53070

[2] S. R. Nam, J. K. Park, Y. C. Kang and T. H. Kim, “A Modeling Method of a High Impedance Fault in a Distribution System Using Two Series Time-Varying Resistances in EMTP,” IEEE Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting, Vancouver, 15-19 July 2001, pp. 11751180.

[3] Y. Sheng and S. M. Rovnyak, “Decision Tree-Based Methodology for High Impedance Fault Detection,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol.19, No. 2, 2004, pp. 533-536.

[4] Cui, X. Z. Dong, Z. Q. Bo and S. Richards, “Integrated Scheme for High Impedance Fault Detection in MV Distribution System,” Latin America IEEE/PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition, Bogota, 13-15 August 2008, pp. 1-6.

[5] A. R. Sedighi and M. R. Haghifam, “Simulation of High Impedance Ground Fault In Electrical Power Distribution Systems,” International Conference on Power System Technology, Hangzhou, 24-28 October 2010, pp. 14271435.

[6] C. L. Huang, H. Y. Chu and M. T. Chen, “Algorithm Comparison for High-Impedance Fault Detection Based on Staged Fault Test,” IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1988, pp. 1427-1435.

[7] H. Calhoun, M. T. Bishop, C. H. Eiceler and R. E. Lee, “Development and Testing of an Electro-Mechanical Relay to Detect Fallen Distribution Conductors,” IEEE Transaction on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-101, No. 6, 1982, pp. 1643-1650.

[8] A. M. Sharaf and S. I. Abu-Azab, “A Smart Relaying Scheme for High Impedance Faults in Distribution and Utilization Networks,” Proceedings of Canadian Conferance on Electrical and Computer Engineering, Halifax, 7-10 March 2000, pp. 740-744.

[9] A. Lazkano, J. Ruiz, L. A. Leturiondo and E. Aramendi, “High Impedance Arcing Fault Detector for Three-Wire Power Distribution Networks,” 10th Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference, Lemesos, 29-31 May 2000, pp. 899-902.

[10] B. D. Russell and R. P. Chinchali, “A Digital Signal Processing Algorithm for Detecting Arcing Fault on Power Distribution Feeders,” IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1989, pp. 132-140.

[11] B. M. Aucoin and B. D. Russell, “Distribution High-Impedance Fault Detection Using High-Frequency Current Components,” IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery, Vol. PAS-101, No. 6, 1982, pp. 1596-1606.

[12] C. H. Kim, H. Kim, Y. Ko, S. H. Byun, R. K. Aggarwal and A. T. Johns, “A Novel Fault-Detection Technique of High-Impedance Arcing Faults in Transmission Lines Using the Wavelet Transform,” IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery, Vol. 17, No. 4, 2002, pp. 921-929.

[13] D. I. Jeering and J. R. Linders, “Unique Aspects of Distribution System Harmonics Due to High Impedance Grand Faults,” IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1990, pp. 1086-1094. doi:10.1109/61.53126

[14] Huges Aircraft Company, “High Impedance Fault Detection Using Third Harmonics Current,” EPRI Report, EL 2430, 1982.

[15] M. G. M zajani, H. K. kargar and M. G. M zanjani, “High Impedance Fault Detection of Distribution Network by Phasor Measurement Units,” Proceedings of 17th Conference on Electrical Power Distribution Networks, Tehran, 2-3 May 2012, pp. 1-5.

[16] A. G. Phadke and J. S. Thorp, “Computer Relaying for Power Systems,” Research Studies Press Ltd., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2009, pp. 151-153. doi:10.1002/9780470749722

[17] M. Balabin, K. G?rner, Y. Li and I. Naumkin and C. Rehtanz, “Evaluation of PMU Performance during Transients,” International Conference on Power System Technology, Hangzhou, 24-28 October 2010, pp. 1-8.

[18] T. M. Lai, L. A. Snider and E. Lo, “Wavelet Transform Based Relay Algorithm for the Detection of Stochastic High Impedance Faults,” International Conference on Power System Transient, New Orland, 2003, pp. 1-6.

[19] T. M. Lai, L. A. E. Lo and D. Sutanto, “High-Impedance Fault Detection Using Discrete Wavelet Transform and Frequency Range and RMS Conversion,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2005, pp. 397407.

[1] G. A. E. Emanuel, D. Cyganski, J. A. Orr, S. Shiller and E. M. Gulachenski, “High Impedance Fault Arcing on Sandy Soil in 15 kV Distribution Feeders: Contributions to the Evaluation of the Low Frequency Spectrum,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1990, pp. 676-686. doi:10.1109/61.53070

[2] S. R. Nam, J. K. Park, Y. C. Kang and T. H. Kim, “A Modeling Method of a High Impedance Fault in a Distribution System Using Two Series Time-Varying Resistances in EMTP,” IEEE Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting, Vancouver, 15-19 July 2001, pp. 11751180.

[3] Y. Sheng and S. M. Rovnyak, “Decision Tree-Based Methodology for High Impedance Fault Detection,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol.19, No. 2, 2004, pp. 533-536.

[4] Cui, X. Z. Dong, Z. Q. Bo and S. Richards, “Integrated Scheme for High Impedance Fault Detection in MV Distribution System,” Latin America IEEE/PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition, Bogota, 13-15 August 2008, pp. 1-6.

[5] A. R. Sedighi and M. R. Haghifam, “Simulation of High Impedance Ground Fault In Electrical Power Distribution Systems,” International Conference on Power System Technology, Hangzhou, 24-28 October 2010, pp. 14271435.

[6] C. L. Huang, H. Y. Chu and M. T. Chen, “Algorithm Comparison for High-Impedance Fault Detection Based on Staged Fault Test,” IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1988, pp. 1427-1435.

[7] H. Calhoun, M. T. Bishop, C. H. Eiceler and R. E. Lee, “Development and Testing of an Electro-Mechanical Relay to Detect Fallen Distribution Conductors,” IEEE Transaction on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-101, No. 6, 1982, pp. 1643-1650.

[8] A. M. Sharaf and S. I. Abu-Azab, “A Smart Relaying Scheme for High Impedance Faults in Distribution and Utilization Networks,” Proceedings of Canadian Conferance on Electrical and Computer Engineering, Halifax, 7-10 March 2000, pp. 740-744.

[9] A. Lazkano, J. Ruiz, L. A. Leturiondo and E. Aramendi, “High Impedance Arcing Fault Detector for Three-Wire Power Distribution Networks,” 10th Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference, Lemesos, 29-31 May 2000, pp. 899-902.

[10] B. D. Russell and R. P. Chinchali, “A Digital Signal Processing Algorithm for Detecting Arcing Fault on Power Distribution Feeders,” IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1989, pp. 132-140.

[11] B. M. Aucoin and B. D. Russell, “Distribution High-Impedance Fault Detection Using High-Frequency Current Components,” IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery, Vol. PAS-101, No. 6, 1982, pp. 1596-1606.

[12] C. H. Kim, H. Kim, Y. Ko, S. H. Byun, R. K. Aggarwal and A. T. Johns, “A Novel Fault-Detection Technique of High-Impedance Arcing Faults in Transmission Lines Using the Wavelet Transform,” IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery, Vol. 17, No. 4, 2002, pp. 921-929.

[13] D. I. Jeering and J. R. Linders, “Unique Aspects of Distribution System Harmonics Due to High Impedance Grand Faults,” IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1990, pp. 1086-1094. doi:10.1109/61.53126

[14] Huges Aircraft Company, “High Impedance Fault Detection Using Third Harmonics Current,” EPRI Report, EL 2430, 1982.

[15] M. G. M zajani, H. K. kargar and M. G. M zanjani, “High Impedance Fault Detection of Distribution Network by Phasor Measurement Units,” Proceedings of 17th Conference on Electrical Power Distribution Networks, Tehran, 2-3 May 2012, pp. 1-5.

[16] A. G. Phadke and J. S. Thorp, “Computer Relaying for Power Systems,” Research Studies Press Ltd., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2009, pp. 151-153. doi:10.1002/9780470749722

[17] M. Balabin, K. G?rner, Y. Li and I. Naumkin and C. Rehtanz, “Evaluation of PMU Performance during Transients,” International Conference on Power System Technology, Hangzhou, 24-28 October 2010, pp. 1-8.

[18] T. M. Lai, L. A. Snider and E. Lo, “Wavelet Transform Based Relay Algorithm for the Detection of Stochastic High Impedance Faults,” International Conference on Power System Transient, New Orland, 2003, pp. 1-6.

[19] T. M. Lai, L. A. E. Lo and D. Sutanto, “High-Impedance Fault Detection Using Discrete Wavelet Transform and Frequency Range and RMS Conversion,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2005, pp. 397407.