Back
 JEP  Vol.4 No.6 , June 2013
Assessment of Heavy Metals, pH, Organic Matter and Organic Carbon in Roadside Soils in Makurdi Metropolis, Benue State, Nigeria
Abstract: Roadside soil samples were collected from four sites (heavy traffic area (Wurukum); industrial site (Gboko road); residential area (Federal Lowcost) and FederalMedicalCenter(Wadata) representing different activities across the Benue Metropolis. At each of the sample site, roadside soils were collected at different distance from the edge of the main road (2, 10, 30, 40 and 60 meters). In each of the distance, roadside soil were collected at three depth of 0 -1 cm, 2 -4 cmand 4 - 6 cm for the determination of pH, organic matter, organic carbon, Cu, Cd, Fe, Pb, As, Mn, Zn, Cd and Ni. pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter and organic carbon were determined using standard procedures, while heavy metals were determined using Perkin-Elmer Analyst 300 Atomic Absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Zinc was observed to show the higher levels in all the sampling sites, such higher level can be related back to the wear-and-tear of vehicle components as a result of the stop-start traffic patterns and brake pads. The concentrations of all the metals in the four sampling sites decreased exponentially with distance from the edge of the road and dropped to the minimum levels at about 60 meters. Similarly, mean concentrations of Cu, Fe, Pb, As, Mn, Zn, Cd and Ni were significantly higher around the industrial area (Gboko road) and heavy traffic (Wurunkum) areas than other sampling areas followed an increasing trend with the increase in depth. The vertical movement of all the metals, exhibited predominant association with soil pH and organic carbon. From the results of this study, the pH of the roadside soils from all the sampling points ranged from 4.56 to 7.71, which enhances increased of heavy metals down the soil profiles. Organic carbon content ranged of 0.27% to 5.44% across all the sampling points appears to increase the mobility of all the metals to a depth6 cm. The values of the heavy metals suggest that automobiles and traffic activities are a major source of these metals in the roadside soil within the study area. Also, with the exception of Pb, Fe and Cd, the levels of Cu, As, Mn, Zn and Ni in the present study were lower as compared with results found by other researcher in various countries worldwide.
Cite this paper: J. Akan, S. Audu, A. Mohammed and V. Ogugbuaja, "Assessment of Heavy Metals, pH, Organic Matter and Organic Carbon in Roadside Soils in Makurdi Metropolis, Benue State, Nigeria," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 4 No. 6, 2013, pp. 618-628. doi: 10.4236/jep.2013.46071.
References

[1]   R. A. Sutherland, “Bed Sediment Associated Trace Metals in an Urban Stream, Oaho, Hawaii,” Environmental Goelogy, Vol. 39, No. 6, 2000, pp. 611-627. doi:10.1007/s002540050473

[2]   C. W. Jin, S. J. Zhang, Y. F. He, G. D. Zhou and Z. X. Zhou, “Lad Contamination in Tea Garden Soils and Factors Affecting Its Bioavialibility,” Chemosphere, Vol. 59, 2005, pp. 1151-1159.

[3]   P. Lee, Y. Yu, S. Yun and B. Mayer, “Metal Contamination and Solid Phase Partitioning of Metals in Urban Roadside Sediments,” Chemosphere, Vol. 60, No. 5, 2005, pp. 672-689. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.01.048

[4]   I. Massas, S. Ehaliotis, S. Gerontids and E. Sarris, “Elevated Heavy Metal Concentrations in Top Soils of an Aegean Islan Town (Greece): Total and Available Forms, Origin and Distribution,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 2008.

[5]   M. Coskun, E. Stieness, M. V. Frontasyeva, E. Sjobakk and S. Demkina, “Heavy Metal Pollution of Surface Soil in the Thrace Region, Turkey,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 119, No. 1-3, 2006, pp. 545-556. doi:10.1007/s10661-005-9042-3

[6]   W. Burghardt, XVII Proceedings of Congres of International Soil Sicnecesoeicety, Bangkok, 2002, pp. 14-21.

[7]   S. Norra and D. Stuben, “Global Soils,” Germany Journal of Soil and Sediments, Vol. 3, No. 4, 2003, pp. 230-233.

[8]   J. Imberion, “Pattern and Development of Land Use Changes in the Kenyan Highlands Since the 1950’s,” Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, Vol. 76, No. 1, 1999, pp. 67-73.

[9]   J. Chen, “Rapid Urbanization in China: Areal Challenge to Soil Protection and Food Security Cateria,” Vol. 69, 2007, pp. 1-15.

[10]   N. M. Zhang, B. G. Li and K. L. Hu, “The Spatial Variation Characteristics of Lead and Cadmium in the Soil of the Sewage Irrigation Area,” Actapedologicasinica, Vol. 40, No. 1, 2003, pp. 152-154.

[11]   J. A. Foley, A. Defries, G. P. Anser, G. Barford, G. Bonan and S. R. Capenter, “Global Consequences of Land Use,” Science, 2005, Vol. 309, No. 5734, pp. 570-574. doi:10.1126/science.1111772

[12]   K. G. Tilller, “Urban Soil Contamination in Australia,” Australian Journal of Soil Research, Vol. 30, No. 6, 1992, pp. 937-957. doi:10.1071/SR9920937

[13]   D. C. Adriano, “Trace Elements in Terrestrial Environments,” Biogoechemsitry, Bioavailability and Risks of Metals, Pringer, New York, 2001, pp. 45-65. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-21510-5

[14]   F. Monna, M. Poujol, R. Losno, J. Dominik, H. Annegarn, and H. Coetzeee, “Origin of Atmosphere Lead in Johannesburn, South Africa,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 40, No. 34, 2006, pp. 6554-6566.

[15]   Y. Sun, G. Zhuang, W. Zhang, Y. Wang and Y. Zhaung, “Charactersitics and Sources of Lead Pollution Afterpharsing out Leaded Gaoline in Beijing,” Atmospheric Environment, 2006, Vol. 40, No. 16, pp. 2973-2985. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.12.032

[16]   R. A. Ligero, M. Casas-Ruiz, M. Barrera, F. Lopez-Aguayo, D. Sales and D. Garcia, “Environmental Impact of Unleaded Gasolines in the Bay of Ca′diz (Spain),” Environment International, Vol. 30, No. 1, 2004, pp. 99-104. doi:10.1016/S0160-4120(03)00152-1

[17]   N. Sezgin, H. K. Ozcan, G. Demir, S. Nemlioglu and C. Bayat, “Determination of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Street Dust in Istanbul E-5 Highway,” Environment International, Vol. 29, No. 7, 2003, pp. 979-985. doi:10.1016/S0160-4120(03)00075-8

[18]   R. Garcia and E. Millan, “Assessment of Cd, Pb and Zn Contamination in Roadside Soils and Grasses from Gipuzkoa (Spain),” Chemosphere, Vol. 37, No. 8, 1998, pp. 1615-1625. doi:10.1016/S0045-6535(98)00152-0

[19]   F. Richard and A. C. M. Bourg, “Aqueous Geochemictry of Chromium a Review,” Water Research, Vol. 25, No. 7, 1991, pp. 807-816. doi:10.1016/0043-1354(91)90160-R

[20]   M. A. Armienta, R. Rodriguez, N. Ceniceros, F. Juarez and O. Cruz, “Distribution, Origin and Fate of Chromium in Soils in Guanajuato, Mexico,” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 91, No. 3, 1996, pp. 391-397. doi:10.1016/0269-7491(95)00040-2

[21]   B. Isikli, T. A. Demir, S. M. Urer, A. Berber, T. Akar and C. Kalyoncu, “Effects of Chromium Exposure from a Cement Factory,” Environmental Research, Vol. 91, No. 2, 2003, pp. 113-118. doi:10.1016/S0013-9351(02)00020-8

[22]   C. Mathieu and F. Pieltain, “Chemical Analysis of Soils,” Selected Methods, France, 2003, p. 387.

[23]   E. O. McLean, “Soil pH and Lime Requirement,” Keeney, Ed., Methods of Soil Analysis, Chemical and Microbiological Properties, 2nd Edition, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, 1982, pp. 199-224.

[24]   O. A. Al-Khashman, “Heavy Metal Distribution in Dust, Street Dust and Soils from the Work Place in Karak Industrial Estate,” Jordan, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 38, No. 39, 2004, pp. 6803-6812. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.09.011

[25]   E. Miguel, J. F. Llamas and E. Chacon, “Origin and Patterns of Distribution of Trace Elements in Street Dust: Unleaded Petrol and Urban Lead,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 31, No. 17, 1997, pp. 2733-2740. doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(97)00101-5

[26]   A. S. Marsh and T. G. Siccama, “Use of Formerly Plowed Land in New England to Monitor the Vertical Distribution of Lead, Zinc and Copper in Mineral Soil,” Water Air Soil Pollution, Vol. 95, No. 1-4, 1997, pp. 75-85. doi:10.1007/BF02406157

[27]   N. Yassoglou, C. Kosmas, J. Asimakopoulos and C. Kallianou, “Heavy Metal Contamination of Roadside Soils in the Greater Athens Area,” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 47, No. 4, 1987, pp. 293-304. doi:10.1016/0269-7491(87)90149-7

[28]   A. M. Francek, “Soil Lead Levels in Orchard and Roadsides of Mission Peninsula, Michigan,” Water Air Soil Pollution, Vol. 93, No. 3-4, 1997, pp. 385-392.

[29]   D. H. Khan and B. Frankland, “Effects of Copper, Cadmium and Lead on Plants with Particular Reference to Movement of Metals through Soil Profile and Plant,” Plant and Soil, Vol. 70, No. 3, 1983, pp. 335-345. doi:10.1007/BF02374890

[30]   F. Beavington, “Contamination of Soil with Zinc, Copper, Lead and Cadmium in the Wollongong City Area,” Australian Journal of Soil Research, Vol. 11, No. 1, 1973, pp. 27-31. doi:10.1071/SR9730027

[31]   M. Biasioli, H. Grcman, T. Kralj, F. Madrid, B. Diaz and F. Ajmone-Marsan, “Potentially Toxic Elements Contamination in Urban Soils: A Comparison of Three European Cities. ASA, CSSA and SSSA,” Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol. 36, No. 1, 2007, pp. 70-79. doi:10.2134/jeq2006.0254

[32]   F. Zhou, H. Guo and Z. Hao, “Spatial Distribution of Heavy Metals in Hong Kong’s Marine Sediments and Their Human Impacts: A GIS Based Chemometric Approach,” Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 54, No. 9, 2007, pp. 1372-1384. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2007.05.017

[33]   D. S. Manta, M. Angelone, A. Bellanca, R. Neri and M. Sprovieri, “Heavy Metals in Urban Soils: A Case Study from the City of Palermo (Sicily), Italy,” Science of Total Environment, Vol. 300, No. 1-3, 2002, pp. 229-243. doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(02)00273-5

[34]   Y. M. Zheng, T. B. Chen and J. Z. He, “Multivariate Geostatistical Analysis of Heavy Metal Intopsoils from Beijing, China,” Journal of Soil and Sediments, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2008, pp. 51-58. doi:10.1065/jss2007.08.245

[35]   X. Wang and Y. Qin, “Spatial Distribution of Metals in Urban Top Soils of Xuzhou (China): Controlling Factors and Environmental Implications,” Environmental Geology, Vol. 49, No. 6, 2006, pp. 905-914. doi:10.1007/s00254-005-0122-z

[36]   O. A. Al-Khashman and R. A. Shawabkeh, “Metals Distribution in Soils around the Cement Factory Insouthern Jordan,” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 140, No. 3, 2006, pp. 387-394. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2005.08.023

[37]   Z. R. Nan, X. Wenqung and C. Y. Zhao, “Spatial Distribution of Selected Trace Metals in Urban Soils of Lanzhou City, Gansu Province, Northwestern of China,” IEEE International Conference on Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, July 31-Aug 4.

[38]   R. Y. Pouyat, I. D. Yesilonis, J. Russel-Anelli and N. K. Neerchal, “Soil Chemical and Physical Properties That Differentiate Urban Land-Use and Cover Types,” Soil Science Society of America Journal, Vol. 71, No. 3, 2007, pp. 1010-1019. doi:10.2136/sssaj2006.0164

[39]   A. Ordonez, J. Loredo, E. De Miguel and S. Charlesworth, “Distribution of Heavy Metals in the Street Dusts and Soils of an Industrial City in Northern Spain,” Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol. 44, No. 2, 2003, pp. 160-170. doi:10.1007/s00244-002-2005-6

[40]   M. H. Arsalan, S. J. H. Kazmi and M. R. Mehdi, “A GIS Appraisal of Heavy Metals Concentration in Soil, GIS Development,” Land Information System, 2004, pp. 76-81.

[41]   X. D. Li, S. L. Lee, S. C. Wong, W. Z. Chi and I. Thornton, “The Study of Metal Contamination in Urban Soils of Hionk Using a GIS Based Approach,” Environment Pollution, Vol. 129, No. 1, 2004, pp. 113-124. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2003.09.030

[42]   A. D. K. Banerjee, “Heavy Metal Levels and Solid Phase Speciation in Street Dusts of Delhi, India,” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 123, No. 1, 2003, pp. 95-105. doi:10.1016/S0269-7491(02)00337-8

[43]   G. Abrahim and R. Parker, “Heavy Metal Contamination in Tamaki Estuary: Impact of City Development and Growth, Auckland, New Zealand,” Environmental Geology, Vol. 42, No. 8, 2002, pp. 883-890.

[44]   A. Moller, H. W. Muller, A. Abdullah, G. Abdelgawad and J. Uttermann, “Urban Soil Pollution in Damascus, Syria: Concentrations and Patterns of Heavy Metals in the Soils of the Damascus Ghouta,” Geoderma, Vol. 124, No. 1-2, 2005, pp. 63-71. doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2004.04.003

[45]   H. T. T. Thuy, H. J. Tobschall and P. V. An, “Distribution of Heavy Metals in Urban Soils a Case Study of Danang-Hoian Area (Veitnam),” Environmental Geology, Vol. 39, No. 6, 2000, pp. 603-610. doi:10.1007/s002540050472

[46]   L. J. Evans, G. A. Spiers and G. Zhao, “Chemical Aspects of Heavy Metal Solubility with Reference to Sewage Sludge-Amended Soils,” International Journal of Environmental and Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 59, No. 2-4, 1995, pp. 291-302. doi:10.1080/03067319508041335

[47]   A. Fotovat, R. Naidu and J. M. Oades, “The Effect of Major Cations and Ionic Strength on Desorption of Native Heavy Metals in Acidic and Sodic Soils,” The 1st International Conference on Contaminants in the Soil Environment, Adelaide, 1996, pp. 193-194.

[48]   S. R. Smith and K. E. Giller, “Effective Rhizombium leguminosarum biovar Trifolii Present in Five Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals from Long-Term Applications of Sewage Sludge or Metal Mine Spoil,”Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Vol. 24, No. 8, 1992, pp. 781-788. doi:10.1016/0038-0717(92)90253-T

[49]   S. Sauve, H. W. Enderson and H. E. Allen, “Solid-Solution Portioning of Metals in Contaminated Soils: Dependence on pH, Total Metal Burden, and Organic Matter,” Environmental Science & Technology, 2000, pp. 1125-1131.

[50]   N. Ram and M. Verloo, “Effect of Various Organic Materials on the Mobility of Heavy Metals in Soil,” Environmental Pollution Series B, Vol. 10, No. 4, 1985, pp. 241-248.

[51]   M. C. Chaun, G. Y. Shu and J. C. Liu, “Solubility of Heavy Metals in a Contaminated Soil: Effects of Redox Potential and pH,” Water, Air and Soil Pollution, Vol. 90, No. 3-4, 1996, pp. 543-556. doi:10.1007/BF00282668

 
 
Top