JGIS  Vol.5 No.3 , June 2013
Effects of Land Surface Temperature on the Frequency of Convective Precipitation in the Tokyo Area
ABSTRACT

This study uses statistical evaluation by correlation analysis to examine the effects of thermal environment on the frequency of convective precipitation in the Greater Tokyo Area between 12:00 and 18:00 on summer days from 1997 to 2006. To extract the frequency of convective precipitation we used Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System radar data to obtain detailed rainfall distribution maps, and to extract the urban thermal environment we used surface temperature data from a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration weather satellite. Results were a coefficient of determination of 0.01, indicating no clear relation between surface temperature and convective rain frequency in the study area. Examining the convective rain frequency distribution map in conjunction with an elevation map of the area indicates that higher elevation is a better predictor of increased frequency of convective rainfall than is surface temperature. Because this indicates that orographic precipitation has a large influence in the study area, we used an elevation map to exclude hilly and mountainous regions, regions bordering flat areas (under the assumption that wind could easily move orographic precipitation to such areas), and regions containing marine areas. Doing so resulted in a coefficient of determination of 0.38, a clear signal that differences in the thermal environment in the Greater Tokyo Area have an effect on the frequency of convective precipitation. We next focused on metropolitan Tokyo, the most developed part of the region and the part experiencing the most frequent occurrences of convective precipitation, and we performed correlation analysis considering parameters related to buildings. Results indicate that orographic precipitation has a strong influence in metropolitan Tokyo as well, so we excluded those areas that were excluded from the Greater Tokyo Area analysis and again performed correlation analysis. However, we found no clear relation of convective precipitation frequency with surface temperature or building parameters.


Cite this paper
Y. Shiraki and Y. Shigeta, "Effects of Land Surface Temperature on the Frequency of Convective Precipitation in the Tokyo Area," Journal of Geographic Information System, Vol. 5 No. 3, 2013, pp. 303-313. doi: 10.4236/jgis.2013.53029.
References
[1]   M. R. Hjelmfelt, “Numerical Simulation of the Effects of St. Louis on Mesoscale Boundary-Layer Airflow and Vertical Motion: Simulations of Urban vs Non-Urban Effects,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 21, No. 9, 1982, pp. 1239-1257. doi:10.1175/1520-0450(1982)021<1239:NSOTEO>2.0.CO;2

[2]   R. Bornstein and Q. Lin, “Urban Heat Islands and Summertime Convective Thunderstorms in Atlanta: Three Cases Studies,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 34, No. 3, 2000, pp. 507-516. doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(99)00374-X

[3]   C. M. Rozoff, W. R. Cotton and J. O. Adegoke, “Simulation of St. Louis, Missouri, Land Use Impacts on Thunderstorms,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 42, No. 6, 2003, pp. 716-738. doi:10.1175/1520-0450(2003)042<0716:SOSLML>2.0.CO;2

[4]   M. Jin, J. M. Shepherd and M. D. King, “Urban Aerosols and Their Variations with Clouds and Rainfall: A Case Study for New York and Houston,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 110, No. D10, 2005, Article ID: D10S20. doi:10.1029/2004JD005081

[5]   S. C. van den Heever and W. R. Cotton, “Urban Aerosol Impacts on Downwind Convective Storms,” Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, Vol. 46, No. 6, 2007, pp. 828-850. doi:10.1175/JAM2492.1

[6]   T. L. Bell, D. Rosenfeld, K.-M. Kim, J.-M. Yoo, M.-I. Lee and M. Hahnenberger, “Midweek Increase in US Summer Rain and Storm Heights Suggests Air Pollution Invigorates Rainstorms,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 113, No. D2, 2008. Article ID: D02209. doi:10.1029/2007JD008623

[7]   J-Y. Han, J-J. Baik and A. P. Khain, “A Numerical Study of Urban Aerosol Impacts on Clouds and Precipitation,” Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 69, No. 2, 2012, pp. 504-520. doi:10.1175/JAS-D-11-071.1

[8]   H. E. Landsberg, “Man-Made Climate Changes: Man’s Activities Have Altered the Climate of Urbanized Areas and May Affect Global Climate in the Future,” Science, Vol. 170, No. 3964, 1970, pp. 1265-1274. doi:10.1126/science.170.3964.1265

[9]   S. A. Changnon, “Rainfall Changes in Summer Caused by St. Louis,” Science, Vol. 205, No. 4404, 1979, pp. 402-404. doi:10.1126/science.205.4404.402

[10]   S. A. Changnon and F. A. Huff, “The Urban Related-Nocturnal Rainfall Anomaly at St. Louis,” Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, Vol. 25, No. 12, 1986, pp. 1985-1995. doi:10.1175/1520-0450(1986)025<1985:TURNRA>2.0.CO;2

[11]   E. Jauregui and E. Romales, “Urban Effects on Convective Precipitation in Mexico City,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 30, No. 20, 1996, pp. 3383-3389. doi:10.1016/1352-2310(96)00041-6

[12]   J. M. Shepherd, H. Pierce and A. J. Negri, “Rainfall Modification by Major Urban Areas: Observations from Spaceborne Rain Radar on the TRMM Satellite,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 41, No. 7, 2002, pp. 689-701. doi:10.1175/1520-0450(2002)041<0689:RMBMUA>2.0.CO;2

[13]   P. G. Dixon and T. L. Mote, “Patterns and Causes of Atlanta’s Urban Heat Island-Initiated Precipitation,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 42, No. 9, 2003, pp. 1273-1284. doi:10.1175/1520-0450(2003)042<1273:PACOAU>2.0.CO;2

[14]   T. L. Mote, M. C. Lacke and J. M. Shepherd, “Radar Signatures of the Urban Effect on Precipitation Distribution: A Case Study for Atlanta, Georgia,” Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 34, No. 20, 2007, Article ID: L20710. doi:10.1029/2007GL031903

[15]   L. S. Rose, J. A. Stallins and M. L. Bentley, “Concurrent Cloud-to-Ground Lightning and Precipitation Enhancement in the Atlanta, Georgia (United States), Urban Region,” Earth Interactions, Vol. 12, No. 11, 2008, pp. 1-30. doi:10.1175/2008EI265.1

[16]   M. Yoshino, “Climate Change in the Urban Area in Japan and the Foreign Countries,” Meteorological Research Note, No. 133, 1977, pp. 1-25. (in Japanese)

[17]   T. Yonetani, “Increase in Number of Days with Heavy Precipitation in Tokyo Urban Area,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 21, No. 10, 1982, pp. 1466-1471. doi:10.1175/1520-0450(1982)021<1466:IINODW>2.0.CO;2

[18]   T. Yonetani, “Enhancement and Initiation of a Cumulus by a Heat Island,” Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, Vol. 61, No. 2, 1983, pp. 244-253. (in Japanese)

[19]   T. Yonetani, “Study of the Urban Effects on the Occurrence of Convective Precipitation,” Report of the National Research Center for Disaster Prevention, No. 44, 1989, pp. 1-59.

[20]   F. Fujibe, “Spatial Anomalies and Long-Term Changes of Precipitation in Tokyo,” Tenki, Vol. 45, No. 1, 1998, pp. 7-18. (in Japanese)

[21]   N. Sato and M. Takahashi, “Long-Term Changes in the Properties of Summer Precipitation in the Tokyo Area,” Tenki, Vol. 47, No. 9, 2000, pp. 643-648. (in Japanese)

[22]   T. Sato, T. Terashima, T. Inoue and F. Kimura, “Intensification of Convective Precipitation Systems over Tokyo Urban Area in Summer Season,” Tenki, Vol. 53, No. 6, 2006, pp. 479-484. (in Japanese)

[23]   M. Roth, T. R. Oke and W. J. Emery, “Satellite-Derived Urban Heat Islands from Three Coastal Cities and the Utilization of Such Data in Urban Climatology,” International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 10, No. 11, 1989, pp. 1699-1720. doi:10.1080/01431168908904002

[24]   Demographia, “Demographia World Urban Areas,” 8th Edition, 2013. http://esa.un.org/unup/pdf/WUP2011_Highlights.pdf

[25]   United Nations, “World Urbanization Prospects. The 2011 Revision,” 2013. http://esa.un.org/unup/pdf/WUP2011_Highlights.pdf

[26]   C. J. Price, “Land Surface Temperature Measurement from the Split Window Channels of the NOAA 7 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 89, No. D5, 1984, pp. 7231-7237. doi:10.1029/JD089iD05p07231

[27]   F. Fujibe, K. Sakagami, K. Chubachi and K. Yamashita, “Surface Wind Patterns Preceding Short-time Heavy Rainfall in Tokyo in the Afternoon of Midsummer Days,” Tenki, Vol. 49, No. 5, 2002, pp. 395-405. (in Japanese)

[28]   T. Mikami, H. Yamamoto, H. Ando, H. Yokoyama, T. Yamaguchi, M. Ichino, Y. Akiyama and K. Ishii, “Climatological Study on the Summer Intensive Heavy Rainfall in Tokyo,” Annual Report of the Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection, 2005, pp. 33-42. (in Japanese)

 
 
Top