undoubtedly the most vital natural resource. Water use management is one of the
greatest challenges that face humanity. The demand for water is continuously
growing because of the population growth, the intensive urbanization and the
development of industrial and agricultural activities. To face the increasing
pressure on this vital resource, it is so necessary to set up the adequate
instruments to ensure a rational and efficient management of this resource. In
this context, the hydrological modeling is largely used as an instrument to
assess the functioning of these resources at watershed scale. In addition, the
use of spatial models let to depict and simulate the watershed processes at
small spatial and heterogeneous scales that reflect the field reality more accurate
and more realistic as possible. However, the use of spatial models requires
geospatial data that must be gathered at very fine scales.The aim of this study is to highlight the contribution of geospatial data
to assess the hydrologic modeling of watershed by using a spatial
hydro-agricultural model, notably the SWAT model (Soil and water Assessment
Tool). The study area is the Basin of Low Oum Er Rbiaa River which extends from
the Al Massira dam to its outlet in the Atlantic Ocean.
This watershed includes a set of dams (Daourat, Imfout and Sidi Maachou) built
in waterfall fashion along the river.The objective was to simulate the hydrological functioning of this area
that had never been modeled in order to assess the management of these
reservoirs used essentially to produce electricity and fresh water.The implementation of the SWAT
model required a spatial database that was built from topography, soil, land
use and climate data. The calibration and validation of the model was carried
out on a daily basis over several years (2001-2010) using The ArcSWAT tool
integrated in ArcGIS software and the Parasol optimization method. The
calibration of SWAT model was successfully done with 0.6 as value of Nash coefficient
used commonly in hydrology to evaluate the model performance.The calibrated model was then used
to estimate the hydrological balance sheet of the Low Oum Er Rbiaa to model the
intermediate contribution of the three reservoirs situated in the watershed.
Cite this paper
Y. Kharchaf, H. Rhinane, A. Kaoukaya and A. Fadil, "The Contribution of the Geospatial Information to the Hydrological Modelling of a Watershed with Reservoirs: Case of Low Oum Er Rbiaa Basin (Morocco)," Journal of Geographic Information System, Vol. 5 No. 3, 2013, pp. 258-268. doi: 10.4236/jgis.2013.53025.
 H. Bouaouda and Y. Timoulali, “The Contribution of Remote Sensing and GIS Hydrogeological Research in the Sahel Region of Central Doukkala (Western Morocco),” Remote Sensing Francophonie: Critical Analysis and Outlook. éd. AUF, Hachette Diffusion Internationale, Laussane, 2000, pp. 205-213.
 B. Héléne, “Variational Data Assimilation for Distributed Hydrological Modeling of Floods with Fast Kinetics,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Institut de National Polytecnique, Toulouse, 2008
 A. Chaponnière, G. Boulet, A. Chehbouni and M. Aresmouk, “Understanding Hydrological Processes with Scarce Data in a Mountain Environment,” Hydrological Processes, Vol. 22, No. 12, 2008, pp. 1908-1921.
 J. P. Fortin, R. Moussa, C. Bocquillon and J. P. Villeneuve “Hydrotel, a Distributed Hydrological Model Compatible with Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems,” Revue des Sciences de l’eau, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1995, pp. 97-124,
 R. Srinivasan, T. S. Ramanarayanan, J. G. Arnold, and S. T. Bednarz, “Large Area Hydrologic Modeling and Assessment. Part 2: Model Application,” Journal of the American Water Resources Association, Vol. 34, No. 1, 1998, pp. 91-101.
 L. Boithias, “Transfer Modeling of Pesticides in Watershed Scale during Vintage,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Institut Polytechnique de Toulouse, Toulouse, 2012
 H. Somaya, “Study on Wetland Vegetation in Morocco Catalog and Analysis of Plant Biodiversity and Identification of Major Plant Groups,” Ph.D. Dissertation, University Mohamed V Rabat, Rabat, 2004, p. 104.
 H. Somaya, “Study on Wetland Vegetation in Morocco Catalog and Analysis of Plant Biodiversity and Identification of Major Plant Groups,” Ph.D. Dissertation, University Mohamed V Rabat, Rabat, 2004, p. 105.
 J. G. Arnold, R. Srinivasan, R. S. Muttiah and J. R. Williams, “Large Area Hydrologic Modelling and Assessment. Part I: Model Development,” Journal of the American Water Resources Association, Vol. 34, No. 1, 1998, pp. 73-89. doi:10.1111/j.1752-1688.1998.tb05961.x
 F. L. Ogden, J. Garbrecht, P. A. DeBarry and L. E. Johnson, “GIS and Distributed Watershed Models, II: Modules, Interfaces, and Models,” Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Vol. 6, No. 6, 2001, pp. 515-523.
 S. L. Neitsch, J. G. Arnold, J. R. Kiniry, J. R. Williams and K. W. King, “Soil and Water Assessment Tool Theoretical Documentation—Version 2005,” Soil and Water Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Temple, 2005.
 B. B. Ashagre, “SWAT to Identify Watershed Management Options: Anjeni Watershed, Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia,” Master’s Thesis, Cornell University, New York, 2009.
 G. S. Shimelis, R. Srinivasan and B. Dargahi, “Hydrological Modelling in the Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia Using SWAT Model,” The Open Hydrology Journal, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2008, pp. 49-62.
 C. H. Green, M. D. Tomer, M. Di Luzio and J. G. Arnold, “Hydrologic Evaluation of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool for a Large Tile-Drained Watershed in IWO,” American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Vol. 49, No. 2, 2006, pp. 413-422.
 A. Sheshukov, K. Douglas-Manking and P. Daggupati, “Evaluating the Effectiveness of Unconfined Livestock BMPs Using SWAT” Proceeding of the International SWAT Conference, Colorado, 7-9 August 2009, pp. 204-211
 P. W. Gassman, M. R. Reyes, C. H. Green and J. G. Arnold, “The Soil and Water Assessment Tool: Historical Development, Applications, and Future Research Directions,” American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, Vol. 50, No. 4, 2007, pp. 1211-1250.
 A. Van Griensven and T. Meixner, “Methods to Quantify and Identify the Sources of Uncertainty for River Basin Water Quality Models,” Water Science and Technology, Vol. 53, No. 1, 2006, pp. 51-59.
 K. L. White and I. Chaubey, “Sensitivity Analysis, Calibration, and Validations for a Multisite and Multivariable SWAT Model,” Journal of the American Water Resources Association, Vol. 41, No. 5, 2005, pp. 1077-1089.
 P. Reungsang, R. S. Kanwar, M. Jha, P. W. Gassman, K. Ahmad and A. Saleh, “Calibration and Validation of SWAT for the Upper Maquoketa River Watershed,” Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University, Ames, 2005.
 A. Fadil, H. Rhinane, A. Kaoukaya, Y. Kharchaf and O. Bachir, “Hydrologic Modeling of the Bouregreg Watershed (Morocco) Using GIS and SWAT Model,” Journal of Geographic Information System, Vol. 3 No. 4, 2011, pp. 279-289. doi:10.4236/jgis.2011.34024
 C. Santhi, J. G. Arnold, J. R. Williams, W. A. Dugas and L. Hauck, “Validation of the SWAT Model on a Large River Basin with Point and Nonpoint Sources,”Journal of the American Water Resources Association, Vol. 37, No. 5, 2001, pp. 1169-1188.