A Study of DTC-Power Electronic Cascade Fed by Photovoltaic Cell-Three-Level NPC Inverter

ABSTRACT

This paper proposes a high performance three-level inverter Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) structure for photovoltaic system. The proposed configuration which can boost the low voltage of photovoltaic (PV) array, can also convert the photovoltaic DC power into high quality AC power. Attention has been paid to the problem of neutral point potential variation. In this way, a Direct Torque Control (DTC) technique has been applied and the estimated value of the Neutral Point Potential (NPP) is used, which is calculated by motor currents. This control strategy uses the redundancy presented by the inverter for selecting appropriate switching state through a switching table to achieve the control of NPP. This study shows the effect of the stability problem of the DC voltages and good static and dynamic performances were obtained in simulation of the proposed cascade “photovoltaic cell-three-level NPC VSI-induction motor”.

This paper proposes a high performance three-level inverter Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) structure for photovoltaic system. The proposed configuration which can boost the low voltage of photovoltaic (PV) array, can also convert the photovoltaic DC power into high quality AC power. Attention has been paid to the problem of neutral point potential variation. In this way, a Direct Torque Control (DTC) technique has been applied and the estimated value of the Neutral Point Potential (NPP) is used, which is calculated by motor currents. This control strategy uses the redundancy presented by the inverter for selecting appropriate switching state through a switching table to achieve the control of NPP. This study shows the effect of the stability problem of the DC voltages and good static and dynamic performances were obtained in simulation of the proposed cascade “photovoltaic cell-three-level NPC VSI-induction motor”.

KEYWORDS

DTC, Switching Table, NPC Three-Level Inverter, Photovoltaic, Neutral Point Potential, Redundant States

DTC, Switching Table, NPC Three-Level Inverter, Photovoltaic, Neutral Point Potential, Redundant States

Cite this paper

I. Messaïf, E. Berkouk and N. Saadia, "A Study of DTC-Power Electronic Cascade Fed by Photovoltaic Cell-Three-Level NPC Inverter,"*Smart Grid and Renewable Energy*, Vol. 1 No. 3, 2010, pp. 109-118. doi: 10.4236/sgre.2010.13016.

I. Messaïf, E. Berkouk and N. Saadia, "A Study of DTC-Power Electronic Cascade Fed by Photovoltaic Cell-Three-Level NPC Inverter,"

References

[1] F. Blaabjerg, R. Teodorescu, M. Liserre, and A. V. Timbus, “Overview of Control and Grid Synchronization for Distributed Power Generation Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 53, No. 5, 2006, pp. 1398-1409.

[2] P. Purkait and R. S. Sriramakavacham, “A New General- ized Space Vector Modulation Algorithm for Neutral- point-clamped Multilevel Converters,” Proceedings of the Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium, Cambridge, 2006, pp. 330-335.

[3] A. Nabae, I. Takahashi and H. Akagi, “A New Neutral Point Clamped PWM Inverter,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. IA-17, No. 5, 1981, pp. 518- 523.

[4] F. Bouchafaa, A. Talha, E. M. Berkouk and M. S. Boucherit, “Stabilization of DC Link Voltage Using a Clamping Bridge In Multilevel Cascade,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Sciences of Electronic Technologies of Information and Telecommunications, Tunis, 27-31 March 2005.

[5] J. Holtz and N. Oikonomou, “Neutral Point Potential Bal-Ancing Algorithm at Low Modulation Index for Three- Level Inverter Medium Voltage Drives,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 43, No. 3, 2007, pp. 761-768.

[6] I. Takahashi and T. Nogushi, “A New Quick-Response and High-Efficiency Control Strategy of Induction Motor,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 22, No. 5, 1986, pp. 820-827.

[7] A. Campeanu, M. Badica and V. Iancu, “Direct Torque and Flux Control of Saturated Induction Machines,” Proceedings of the International Symposium on Advanced Electromechanical Motion Systems (Electromotion), Lausanne, 27-29 September 2005.

[8] A. L. Mohamadein, R. Hamdyn and M. Gadoue, “A Com- Parison between Two Direct Torque Control Strategies for Flux and Torque Ripple Reduction for Induction Motors Drives,” Proceedings of the Ninth International Middle East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON’2003), She- been Al-Koum, Egypt, 16-18 December 2003.

[9] I. Messa?f, E. M. Berkouk and N. Saadia, “Direct Torque Control for Induction Machines Using Neural Networks,” The Archives of Control Sciences, Vol. 17-LIII, No. 1, 2007, pp. 5-16.

[10] X. del Toro, S. Calls, M. G. Jayne, P. A. Witting, A. Arias and J. L. Pomeral, “Direct Torque Control of an Induction Motor Using a Three-Level Inverter and Fuzzy Logic,” Proceedings of Industrial Electronics, International Symposium, Vol. 2, No. 4-7, 2004, pp. 923-927.

[11] I. Messa?f, E. M. Berkouk and N. Saadia, “Selection of Voltage Switching Tables DTC of Induction Motor Driven by Three-Level NPC VSI,” Proceedings of the First Elec- trical Engineering Conference 2007 EE’07, Aleppo, Syria, 26-28 June 2007.

[12] I. Messa?f, E. M. Berkouk and N. Saadia, “Ripple Reduc- tion in DTC Drives by Using a Three-Level NPC VSI,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Electronics Circuits and Systems, Marrakech, 11-14 December 2007, pp. 1179-1182.

[13] B. Multon, etal., “Analysis and Experimental Validation of Various Photovoltaic System Models,” Proceedings of the 7th International ELECTRIMACS’2002 Congress, Montréal, 2002, pp. 1-6.

[14] G. Saravana, P. Srinivasa Rao, A. Karthikeyan and C. Nagamani, “Single-Stage Sine-Wave Inverter for an Auto- Nomous Operation of Solar Photovoltaic Energy Conversion System,” Renewable Energy an International Journal, Vol. 35, No. 1, 2010, pp. 275-282.

[15] G. Araujo, E. Sanchez and M. Marti, “Determination of the Two Exponential Solar Cell Equation Parameters from Empirical Data,” Solar Cells, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1982, pp. 199- 204.

[16] N. Celanovic, “Space Vector Modulation and Control of Multilevel Converters,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Department, Virginia, 2000.

[1] F. Blaabjerg, R. Teodorescu, M. Liserre, and A. V. Timbus, “Overview of Control and Grid Synchronization for Distributed Power Generation Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 53, No. 5, 2006, pp. 1398-1409.

[2] P. Purkait and R. S. Sriramakavacham, “A New General- ized Space Vector Modulation Algorithm for Neutral- point-clamped Multilevel Converters,” Proceedings of the Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium, Cambridge, 2006, pp. 330-335.

[3] A. Nabae, I. Takahashi and H. Akagi, “A New Neutral Point Clamped PWM Inverter,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. IA-17, No. 5, 1981, pp. 518- 523.

[4] F. Bouchafaa, A. Talha, E. M. Berkouk and M. S. Boucherit, “Stabilization of DC Link Voltage Using a Clamping Bridge In Multilevel Cascade,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Sciences of Electronic Technologies of Information and Telecommunications, Tunis, 27-31 March 2005.

[5] J. Holtz and N. Oikonomou, “Neutral Point Potential Bal-Ancing Algorithm at Low Modulation Index for Three- Level Inverter Medium Voltage Drives,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 43, No. 3, 2007, pp. 761-768.

[6] I. Takahashi and T. Nogushi, “A New Quick-Response and High-Efficiency Control Strategy of Induction Motor,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 22, No. 5, 1986, pp. 820-827.

[7] A. Campeanu, M. Badica and V. Iancu, “Direct Torque and Flux Control of Saturated Induction Machines,” Proceedings of the International Symposium on Advanced Electromechanical Motion Systems (Electromotion), Lausanne, 27-29 September 2005.

[8] A. L. Mohamadein, R. Hamdyn and M. Gadoue, “A Com- Parison between Two Direct Torque Control Strategies for Flux and Torque Ripple Reduction for Induction Motors Drives,” Proceedings of the Ninth International Middle East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON’2003), She- been Al-Koum, Egypt, 16-18 December 2003.

[9] I. Messa?f, E. M. Berkouk and N. Saadia, “Direct Torque Control for Induction Machines Using Neural Networks,” The Archives of Control Sciences, Vol. 17-LIII, No. 1, 2007, pp. 5-16.

[10] X. del Toro, S. Calls, M. G. Jayne, P. A. Witting, A. Arias and J. L. Pomeral, “Direct Torque Control of an Induction Motor Using a Three-Level Inverter and Fuzzy Logic,” Proceedings of Industrial Electronics, International Symposium, Vol. 2, No. 4-7, 2004, pp. 923-927.

[11] I. Messa?f, E. M. Berkouk and N. Saadia, “Selection of Voltage Switching Tables DTC of Induction Motor Driven by Three-Level NPC VSI,” Proceedings of the First Elec- trical Engineering Conference 2007 EE’07, Aleppo, Syria, 26-28 June 2007.

[12] I. Messa?f, E. M. Berkouk and N. Saadia, “Ripple Reduc- tion in DTC Drives by Using a Three-Level NPC VSI,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Electronics Circuits and Systems, Marrakech, 11-14 December 2007, pp. 1179-1182.

[13] B. Multon, etal., “Analysis and Experimental Validation of Various Photovoltaic System Models,” Proceedings of the 7th International ELECTRIMACS’2002 Congress, Montréal, 2002, pp. 1-6.

[14] G. Saravana, P. Srinivasa Rao, A. Karthikeyan and C. Nagamani, “Single-Stage Sine-Wave Inverter for an Auto- Nomous Operation of Solar Photovoltaic Energy Conversion System,” Renewable Energy an International Journal, Vol. 35, No. 1, 2010, pp. 275-282.

[15] G. Araujo, E. Sanchez and M. Marti, “Determination of the Two Exponential Solar Cell Equation Parameters from Empirical Data,” Solar Cells, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1982, pp. 199- 204.

[16] N. Celanovic, “Space Vector Modulation and Control of Multilevel Converters,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Department, Virginia, 2000.