WJA  Vol.3 No.2 , June 2013
HIV Infection among Newly Diagnosed TB Patients in Southwestern Nigeria: A Multi-DOTS Center Study
Abstract

Backgroud: The burden of TB and HIV infection is estimated to be about 512/100,000 and 3,000,000 people respectively. However, accurate data on TB/HIV co-morbidity in different parts of Nigeria were not available due to limited access to HIV Counseling and Testing (HCT) by individuals with TB infection. This study was designed to determine the true rate of HIV infection among newly diagnosed TB patients by providing comprehensive HCT services in 43 DOTS centers in Oyo State, Southwestern Nigeria. Methods: All patients meeting the case definition for TB suspects who presented at each of the 43 DOTS Centres were counselled and those who consented tested for presence of HIV antibodies using HIV 1/2 Determine, Unigold and Stat-Pak rapid test kits in a serial algorithm. Results: A total of 13,109 TB positive patients were enrolled for the study, out of which 1605 (12.3%) tested positive for HIV antibodies. HIV infection was higher among female (15.5%) than male (9.5%) TB patients (p < 0.05). The rates also varied among the age groups, ranging from 4.3% in the 10 - 19 years to 18.0% in the 40 - 49 years age group. A relatively high rate (10.5%) of HIV infection was found among children less than ten years of age. Conclusion: The results of this work show the true burden of TB/HIV in any region in Nigeria for the first time. Higher rate of TB/HIV co-infection among female patients and children are significant and important factors that should be considered in the planning of intervention measures in Nigeria and other TB and HIV endemic countries in Africa.


Cite this paper
G. Odaibo, P. Okonkwo, O. Lawal and D. Olaleye, "HIV Infection among Newly Diagnosed TB Patients in Southwestern Nigeria: A Multi-DOTS Center Study," World Journal of AIDS, Vol. 3 No. 2, 2013, pp. 154-159. doi: 10.4236/wja.2013.32020.
References

[1]   S. K. Sharma, A. Mohan and T. Kadhiravan, “HIV-TB CoInfection: Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Management,” Indian Journal of Medical Research, Vol. 121, No. 4, 2005, pp. 550-567.

[2]   Center for Disease Control and prevention (CDC), “HIV Testing and Treatment among Tuberculosis Patients-Kenya 2006-2009,” JAMA, Vol. 305, No. 4, 2011, pp. 351-353.

[3]   FMOH, “National HIV Sero-Prevalence Sentinel Survey among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Nigeria,” Technical Report, 2010, pp. 1-96.

[4]   FMOH, “A Technical Report on 2001 HIV/Syphilis Sentinel Survey among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Nigeria,” Federal Ministry of Health, National AIDS Control Programmes, 2001, pp. 1-63.

[5]   O. M. Ige, O. M. Sogaolu and O. A. Ogunlade, “Pattern of Presentation of Tuberculosis and the Hospital Prevalence of Tuberculosis and HIV Co-Infection in University College Hospital, Ibadan: A Review of Five Years (1998-2002),” African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Vol. 34, No. 4, 2005, pp. 329-333.

[6]   A. Mahajan and V. R. Tandon, “HIV/AIDS-TB Co-Infection: What Prevalence Indicates?” JK Science Journal of Medical Education and Research, Vol. 9, No. 2, 2007, pp. 56-57.

[7]   C. T. Kang’ombe, A. D. Harries, K. Ito, et al., “Longterm Outcome in Patients Registered with Tuberculosis in Zomba, Malawi: Mortality at 7 Years According to Initial HIV Status and Type of TB,” International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Vol. 8, No. 7, 2004, pp. 829-836.

[8]   J. G. Pontororing, E. Kenangalem, D. B. Lolong, G. Waramori, Sandjaja, E. Tjitra, R. N. Price, P. M. Kelly, N. M. Anstey and A. P. Ralph, “The Burden and Treatment of HIV in Tuberculosis Patients in Papua Province, Indonesia: A Prospective Observational Study,” BioMed Central Infectious Diseases, Vol. 10, 2010, p. 362. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2334/10/362

[9]   World Health Organization, “Interim Policy on Collaborative TB/HIV Activities,” World Health Organization, Geneva, 2004. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2004/who_htm_tb_2004.330_eng.pdf

[10]   G. N. Odaibo, M. F. Gboun, E. E. Ekanem, S. N. Gwarzo, I. Saliu, S. A. Egbewunmi, E. A. Abebe and D. O. Olaleye, “HIV Infection among Patients with PTB in Nigeria,” African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Vol. 35, 2006, pp. 93-98.

[11]   FMOH, “Sero-Prevalence Sentinel Survey among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Nigeria,” A Technical Report, Federal Ministry of Health, National AIDS Control Programmes, 2008, pp. 1-85.

[12]   G. Pennap, S. Makpa and S. Ogbu, “Sero-Prevalence of HIV Infection among Tuberculosis Patients in a Rural Tuberculosis Referral Clinic in Northern Nigeria,” Pan African Medical Journal, Vol. 5, 2010, p. 22.

[13]   O. Erhabor, Z. A. Jeremiah, A. C. Adias and C. E. Okere, “The Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among TB Patients in Port Harcourt Nigeria,” HIV/ AIDS—Research and Palliative Care, Vol. 2, 2010, pp. 1-5.

[14]   FMOH, “HIV Sero-Prevalence Sentinel Survey among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Nigeria,” A Technical Report, Federal Ministry of Health, National AIDS Control Programmes, 2003, pp. 1-63.

[15]   S. S. Sawant, S. R. Agrawal, J. S. Shastri, M. Pawaskar and P. Kadam, “Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among Tuberculosis Patients in Mumbai,” Journal of Laboratory Physicians, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2011, pp. 12-14.

[16]   J. C. Cadwell, “Understanding the AIDS Epidemic and Reacting Sensibly to It,” Social Sciences and Medicine, Vol. 41, No. 3, 1995, pp. 299-302.

[17]   C. O. Isiramen, “Women in Nigeria: Religion, Culture and AIDS,” International Humanist News and Ethical Union, 2003. http://iheu.org/content/women-nigeria-religion-culture-and-aids

[18]   Z. Iliyasu and M. Babashani, “Prevalence and Predictors of TB Coinfection among HIV Seropositive Patients Attending Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Northern Nigeria,” Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2009, pp. 81-87.

[19]   T. C. Rodwell, R. F. W. Barnes, M. Moore, S. A. Strathdee, A. Raich, K. S. Moser and R. S. Garfein, “HIV-Tuberculosis Coinfection in Southern California: Evaluating Disparities in Disease Burden,” American Journal of Public-Health, Vol. 100, Suppl. 1, 2010, pp. S178-S185.

 
 
Top