ABSTRACT Conventional synthesis of silver nanoparticles employs a reducing agent and a capping agent. Surfactants are effec-tive capping agents as they prevent the aggregation of nanoparticles during storage and use. However, the biocompatibility of several of the surfactants is questionable. In this report, the use of thiosalicylic acid as both reducing and capping agent is reported. Compared to conventional synthesis, this methodology requires higher temperature for synthesis, which then is expected to result in aggregates of larger size. The ability of three different synthesis methodologies – direct heating, photochemical and microwave dielectric treatment were evaluated and assessed on the basis of the size, size distribution and stability of the particles. Microwave irradiation was found to be most suitable for achieving particles with a hydrodynamic diameter of 10 nm. Our studies indicate that -COO- group is involved in the reduction of Ag+ and –SH group of TSA is involved in the capping of the nanoparticles.
Cite this paper
nullR. Indumathy, K. Sreeram, M. Sriranjani, C. Aby and B. Nair, "Bifunctional Role of Thiosalicylic Acid in the Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles," Materials Sciences and Applications, Vol. 1 No. 5, 2010, pp. 272-278. doi: 10.4236/msa.2010.15040.
 E. A. Chandross and R. D. Miller. “Nanostructures: Introduction,” Chemical Reviews, Vol. 99, No. 7, 1999, pp. 1641-1642.
 L. M. Liz-Marzan, “Tailoring Surface Plasmons through the Morphology and Assembly of Metal Nanoparticles,” Langmuir, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2005, pp. 32-41.
 Sampaio, K. C. Beverly and J. R. Heath, “DC Transport in Self-Assembled 2D Layers of Ag Nanoparticles,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol. 105, No. 37, 2001, pp. 8797-8800.
 M. Chen, Y.-G. Feng, X. Wang, T.-C. Li, J.-Y. Zhang and D.-J. Qian, “Silver Nanoparticles Capped by Oleylamine: Formation, Growth, and Self-Organization,” Langmuir, Vol. 23, No. 10, 2007, pp. 5296-5304.
 X. Dong, X. Ji, H. Wu, L. Zhao, J. Li and W. Yang. “Shape Control of Silver Nanoparticles by Stepwise Citrate Reduction,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 113, No. 16, 2009, pp. 6573-6576.
 Y. Li, Y. Wu and B. S. Ong, “Facile Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Useful for Fabrication of High-Conductivity Elements for Printed Electronics,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 127, No. 10, 2005, pp. 3266-3267.
 A. D. McFarland and R. P. Van Duyne, “Single Silver Nanoparticles as Real-Time Optical Sensors with Zep- tomole Sensitivity,” Nano Letters, Vol. 3, No. 8, 2003, pp. 1057- 1062.
 M. Muniz-Miranda, B. Pergolese, A. Bigotto and A. Giusti, “Stable and efficient silver substrates for SERS spectroscopy,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 314, No. 2, 2007, pp. 540-544.
 S. Sarkar, A. D. Jana, S. K. Samanta and G. Mostafa, “Facile synthesis of silver nano particles with highly efficient anti-microbial property,” Polyhedron, Vol. 26, No. 15, 2007, pp. 4419-4426.
 D. G. Duff, A. Baiker and P. P. Edwards, “A new hydrosol of gold clusters. 1. Formation and particle size variation,” Langmuir, Vol. 9, No. 9, 1993, pp. 2301-2309.
 W. Wang, S. Efrima and O. Regev, “Directing Oleate Stabilized Nanosized Silver Colloids into Organic Phases,” Langmuir, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1998, pp. 602-610.
 V. V. Agrawal, G. U. Kulkarni and C. N. R. Rao, “Surfactant-promoted formation of fractal and dendritic nanostructures of gold and silver at the organic-aqueous interface,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 318, No. 2, 2008, pp. 501-506.
 H. -G. Liu, F. Xiao, C.-W. Wang, Q. Xue, X. Chen, Y.-I. Lee, J. Hao and J. Jiang, “Synthesis of one-dimensional silver oxide nanoparticle arrays and silver nanorods templated by Langmuir monolayers,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 314, No. 1, 2007, pp. 297- 303.
 A. Manna, T. Imae, M. Iida and N. Hisamatsu, “Formation of Silver Nanoparticles from a N-Hexadecylethylenediamine Silver Nitrate Complex,” Langmuir, Vol. 17, No. 19, 2001, pp. 6000-6004.
 P. Mukherjee, A. Ahmad, D. Mandal, S. Senapati, S. R. Sainkar, M. I. Khan, R. Parishcha, P. V. Ajaykumar, M. Alam, R. Kumar and M. Sastry, “Fungus-Mediated Syn- thesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Immobiliza-tion in the Mycelial Matrix: A Novel Biological Approach to Nanoparticle Synthesis,” Nano Letters, Vol. 1, 2001, pp. 515-519.
 W. Song, H. Jia, Q. Cong and B. Zhao, “Silver MicroFlowers and Large Spherical Particles: Controlled Preparation and Their Wetting Properties,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 311, No. 2, 2007, pp. 456-460.
 W. Wang and S. A. Asher, “Photochemical Incorporation of Silver Quantum Dots in Monodisperse Silica Colloids for Photonic Crystal Applications,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 123, No. 50, 2001, pp. 12528-12535.
 B. Xue, P. Chen, Q. Hong, J. Lin and K.L. Tan, “Growth of Pd, Pt, Ag and Au Nanoparticles on Carbon Nanotubes,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, Vol. 11, No. 11, 2001, pp. 2378-2381.
 Z. Zhang, R. C. Patel, R. Kothari, C. P. Johnson, S. E. Friberg and P. A. Aikens, “Stable Silver Clusters and Nanoparticles Prepared in Polyacrylate and Inverse Micellar Solutions,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol. 104, No. 6, 2000, pp. 1176-1182.
 M. Zheng, M. Gu, Y. Jin and G. Jin, “Optical Properties of Silver-Dispersed PVP Thin Film,” Materials Research Bulletin, Vol. 36, No. 5, pp. 853-859.
 J.-J. Zhu, X.-H. Liao, X.-N. Zhao and H.-Y. Chen, “Preparation of Silver Nanorods by Electrochemical Methods,” Materials Letters, Vol. 49, No. 2, 2001, pp. 91-95.
 P. C. Lee and D. Meisel, “Adsorption and Surface Enhanced Raman of Dyes on Silver and Gold Sols,” The
Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 86, No. 17, 1982, pp. 3391-3395.
 B. Karthikeyan, “Novel Synthesis and Optical Properties of Sm3+ Doped Au-Polyvinyl Alcohol Nanocomposite Films,” Chemical Physics Letters, Vol. 432, No. 4-6, 2006, pp. 513-517.
 P. K. Khanna, N. Singh, D. Kulkarni, S. Deshmukh, S. Charan and P. V. Adhyapak, “Water Based Simple Syn- thesis of Re-Dispersible Silver Nano-Particles,” Materials Letters, Vol. 61, No. 16, 2007, pp. 3366-3370.
 M. Husein, E. Rodil and J. Vera, “Preparation of AgBr Nanoparticles in Microemulsions Via Reaction of AgNO3; with CTAB Counterion,” Journal of Nanoparticle Research, Vol. 9, No. 5, 2007, pp. 787-796.
 K. Esumi, K. Matsuhisa and K. Torigoe, “Preparation of Rodlike Gold Particles by UV Irradiation Using Cationic Micelles as a Template,” Langmuir, Vol. 11, No. 9, 1995, pp. 3285-3287.
 M. Y. Han and C. H. Quek, “Photochemical Synthesis in Formamide and Room-Temperature Coulomb Staircase Behavior of Size-Controlled Gold Nanoparticles,” Langmuir, Vol. 16, No. 2, 1999, pp. 362-367.
 K. C. Grabar, R. G. Freeman, M. B. Hommer and M. J. Natan, “Preparation and Characterization of Au Colloid Monolayers,” Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 67, No. 4, 1995, pp. 735-743.
 S. Komarneni, D. Li, B. Newalkar, H. Katsuki and A. S. Bhalla, “Microwave Polyol Process for Pt and Ag Nano- particles,” Langmuir, Vol. 18, No. 15, 2002, pp. 5959- 5962.
 T. Yamamoto, H. Yin, Y. Wada, T. Kitamura, T. Sakata, H. Mori and S. Yanagida, “Morphology-Control in Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Silver Particles in Aqueous Solutions,” Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan, Vol. 77, No. 4, 2004, pp. 757-761.
 R. H. Ritchie, “Plasma Losses by Fast Electrons in Thin Films,” Physical Review, Vol. 106, No. 5, 1957, pp. 874- 881.
 A. Kumar, H. Joshi, R. Pasricha, A. B. Mandale and M. Sastry, “Phase Transfer of Silver Nanoparticles from Aqueous to Organic Solutions Using Fatty Amine Molecules,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 264, No. 2, 2003, pp. 396-401.
 C. Petit, P. Lixon and M.P. Pileni, “In Situ Synthesis of Silver Nanocluster in AOT Reverse Micelles,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 97, No. 49, 1993, pp. 12974-12983.
 P. Magudapathy, P. Gangopadhyay, B.K. Panigrahi, K. G. M. Nair and S. Dhara, “Electrical Transport Studies of Ag Nanoclusters Embedded in Glass Matrix,” Physica B: Condensed Matter, Vol. 299, No. 1-2, 2001, pp. 142-146.