Back
 ARS  Vol.2 No.2 , June 2013
Simulations of Seasonal and Latitudinal Variations in Leaf Inclination Angle Distribution: Implications for Remote Sensing
Abstract: The leaf inclination angle distribution (LAD) is an important characteristic of vegetation canopy structure affecting light interception within the canopy. However, LADs are difficult and time consuming to measure. To examine possible global patterns of LAD and their implications in remote sensing, a model was developed to predict leaf angles within canopies. Canopies were simulated using the SAIL radiative transfer model combined with a simple photosynthesis model. This model calculated leaf inclination angles for horizontal layers of leaves within the canopy by choosing the leaf inclination angle that maximized production over a day in each layer. LADs were calculated for five latitude bands for spring and summer solar declinations. Three distinct LAD types emerged: tropical, boreal, and an intermediate temperate distribution. In tropical LAD, the upper layers have a leaf angle around 35° with the lower layers having horizontal inclination angles. While the boreal LAD has vertical leaf inclination angles throughout the canopy. The latitude bands where each LAD type occurred changed with the seasons. The different LADs affected the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) with similar relationships between fAPAR and leaf area index (LAI), but different relationships between NDVI and LAI for the different LAD types. These differences resulted in significantly different relationships between NDVI and fAPAR for each LAD type. Since leaf inclination angles affect light interception, variations in LAD also affect the estimation of leaf area based on transmittance of light or lidar returns.
Cite this paper: K. Huemmrich, "Simulations of Seasonal and Latitudinal Variations in Leaf Inclination Angle Distribution: Implications for Remote Sensing," Advances in Remote Sensing, Vol. 2 No. 2, 2013, pp. 93-101. doi: 10.4236/ars.2013.22013.
References

[1]   P. G. Jarvis and J. W. Leverenz, “Productivity of Temperate, Deciduous and Evergreen Forests,” In: O. L. Lange, C. B. Osmond and H. Ziegler, Eds., Physiological Plant Ecology IV, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983, pp. 233-280. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-68156-1_9

[2]   D. A. King, “The Functional Significance of Leaf Angle in Eucalyptus,” Australian Journal of Botany, Vol. 45, No. 4, 1997, pp. 619-639. doi:10.1071/BT96063

[3]   I. Cowan, “Regulation of Water Use in Relation to Carbon Gain in Higher Plants,” In: O. L. Lange, P. S. Nobel, C. B. Osmond and H. Ziegler, Eds., Physiological Plant Ecology II. Water Relations and Carbon Assimilation, Encyclopaedia of Plant Physiology Vol. 12B, Springer, Berlin, 1981, pp. 589-614.

[4]   F. Baret and G. Guyot, “Potential and Limits of Vegetation Indices for LAI and APAR Assessment,” Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 35, No. 2-3, 1991, pp. 161-173. doi:10.1016/0034-4257(91)90009-U

[5]   S. N. Goward and K. F. Huemmrich, “Vegetation Canopy PAR Absorptance and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index: An Assessment Using the SAIL Model,” Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 39, No. 2, 1992, pp. 119-140. doi:10.1016/0034-4257(92)90131-3

[6]   J. Ehleringer and K. S. Werk, “Modifications of Solar Radiation Absorption Patterns and Implications for Carbon Gain at the Leaf Level,” In: T. Givnish, Ed., On the Economy of Plant Form and Function, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1986, pp. 57-82.

[7]   E. Ezcurra, C. Montana and S. Arizaga, “Architecture Light Interception and Distribution of Larrea-spp in the Monte Desert Argentina,” Ecology, Vol. 72, No. 1, 1991, pp. 23-34. doi:10.2307/1938899

[8]   J. Ross, “The Radiation Regime and Architecture of Plant Stands,” Dr. W. Junk, The Hague, 1981. doi:10.1007/978-94-009-8647-3

[9]   N. S. Goel and D. E. Strebel, “Simple Beta Distribution Representation of Leaf Orientation in Vegetation Canopies,” Agronomy Journal, Vol. 76, No. 5, 1984, pp. 800-802. doi:10.2134/agronj1984.00021962007600050021x

[10]   D. D. Baldocchi, B. A. Hutchison, D. R. Matt and R. T. McMillen, “Canopy Radiative Transfer Models for Spherical and Known Leaf Inclination Angle Distributions: A Test in an Oak-Hickory Forest,” Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 22, No. 2, 1985, pp. 539-556. doi:10.2307/2403184

[11]   H. Barclay, “Distribution of Leaf Orientations in Six Conifer Species,” Canadian Journal of Botany, Vol. 79, No. 4, 2001, pp. 389-397. doi:10.1139/b01-014

[12]   W. K. Smith, D. T. Bell and K. A. Shepherd, “Associations between Leaf Structure, Orientation, and Sunlight Exposure in Five Western Australian Communities,” American Journal of Botany, Vol. 85, No. 1, 1998, pp. 56-63. doi:10.2307/2446554

[13]   W. K. Smith, T. C. Vogelmann, E. H. Delucia, D. T. Bell and K. A. Shepherd, “Leaf Form and Photosynthesis,” Bioscience, Vol. 47, No. 11, 1997, pp. 785-793. doi:10.2307/1313100

[14]   C. Werner, R. J. Ryel, O. Correia and W. Beyschlag, “Structural and Functional Variability within the Canopy and its Relevance for Carbon Gain and Stress Avoidance,” Acta Oecologica, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2001, pp. 129-138. doi:10.1016/S1146-609X(01)01106-7

[15]   J. Ehleringer and I. Forseth, “Solar Tracking by Plants,” Science, Vol. 210, No. 4474, 1980, pp. 1094-1098. doi:10.1126/science.210.4474.1094

[16]   D. S. Kimes and J. A. Kircher, “Diurnal Variations of Vegetation Canopy Structure,” International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1983, pp. 257-271. doi:10.1080/01431168308948545

[17]   J. L. Monteith, “Light Distribution and Photosynthesis in Field Crops,” Annals of Botany, Vol. 29, No. 113, 1965, pp. 17-37.

[18]   H. Horn, “The Adaptive Geometry of Trees,” Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1971.

[19]   D.S. Falster and M. Westoby, “Leaf Size and Angle Vary Widely Across Species: What Consequences for Light Interception?” New Phytologist, Vol. 158, No. 3, 2003, pp. 509-525. doi:10.1046/j.1469-8137.2003.00765.x

[20]   W. G. Duncan, “Leaf Angles, Leaf Area, and Canopy Photosynthesis,” Crop Science, Vol. 11, No. 4, 1971, pp. 482-485. doi:10.2135/cropsci1971.0011183X001100040006x

[21]   E. D. Ford and P. J. Newbould, “The Leaf Canopy of a Coppiced Deciduous Woodland. I. Development and Structure,” Journal of Ecology, Vol. 59, No. 3, 1971, pp. 843-862. doi:10.2307/2258144

[22]   D. R. Miller and J. D. Lin, “Canopy Architecture of a Red Maple Edge Stand Measured by a Point Drop Method,” In: B. A. Hutchison and B. B. Hicks, Eds., The Forest-Atmosphere Interaction, D. Reidel, Boston, 1985, pp. 59-70. doi:10.1007/978-94-009-5305-5_4

[23]   B. Hutchison, D. Matt, R. McMillen, L. Gross, S. Tajchman and J. Norman, “The Architecture of Deciduous Forest Canopy in Eastern Tennessee, USA,” Journal of Ecology, Vol. 74, No. 3, 1986, pp. 635-646. doi:10.2307/2260387

[24]   D. Y. Hollinger, “Canopy Organization and Foliage Photosynthetic Capacity in a Broad-Leaved Evergreen Montane Forest,” Functional Ecology, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1989, pp. 53-62. doi:10.2307/2389675

[25]   T. J. Herbert, “Leaf Inclination of Dryas octopetala L. and its Dependence on Latitude,” Polar Biology, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1993, pp. 141-143. doi:10.1007/BF00238547

[26]   D. S. Bartlett, M. A. Hardisky, R. W. Johnson, M. F. Gross, V. Klemas and J. M. Hartman, “Continental Scale Variability in Vegetation Reflectance and its Relationship to Canopy Morphology,” International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 9, No. 7, 1988, pp. 1223-1241. doi:10.1080/01431168808954930

[27]   P. J. Sellers, “Canopy Reflectance, Photosynthesis and Transpiration,” International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 6, No. 8, 1985, pp. 1335-1372. doi:10.1080/01431168508948283

[28]   B. J. Choudhury, “Relationships between Vegetation Indices, Radiation Absorption and Net Photosynthesis Evaluated by a Sensitivity Analysis,” Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 22, No. 2, 1987, pp. 209-234. doi:10.1016/0034-4257(87)90059-9

[29]   L. Alexander, “SAIL Canopy Model Fortran Software,” NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, 1983.

[30]   W. Verhoef, “Light Scattering by Leaf Layers with Application to Canopy Reflectance Modeling: The SAIL Model,” Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 16, No. 2, 1984, pp. 125-141. doi:10.1016/0034-4257(84)90057-9

[31]   L. E. Hipps, G. Asrar and E. Kanemasu, “Assessing the Interception of Photosynthetically Active Radiation in Winter Wheat,” Agricultural Meteorology, Vol. 28, No. 3, 1983, pp. 253-259. doi:10.1016/0002-1571(83)90030-4

[32]   W. D. Sellers, “Physical Climatology,” University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1965.

[33]   S. N. Goward, C. J. Tucker and D. G. Dye, “North American Vegetation Patterns Observed with the NOAA7 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer,” Vegetatio, Vol. 64, No. 1, 1985, pp. 3-14. doi:10.1007/BF00033449

[34]   C. O. Justice, J. R. G. Townshend, B. N. Holben and C. J. Tucker, “Analysis of the Phenology of Global Vegetation using Meteorological Satellite Data,” International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 6, No. 8, 1985, pp. 1271-1318. doi:10.1080/01431168508948281

[35]   H. Utsugi, M. Araki, T. Kawasaki and M. Ishizuka, “Vertical Distributions of Leaf Area and Inclination Angle, and their Relationship in a 46-Year-Old Chamaecyparis obtusa Stand,” Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 225, No. 1-3, 2006, pp. 104-112. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2005.12.028

[36]   R. O. Dubayah and J. B. Drake, “Lidar Remote Sensing for Forestry,” Journal of Forestry, Vol. 98, No. 6, 2000, pp. 44-46.

 
 
Top