OJVM  Vol.3 No.2 , June 2013
Penicillin-Resistant Aerococcus viridans Bacteremia Associated with Bovine Severe Respiratory Syndrome
Abstract: Aerococcus viridans, a less frequently isolated bacteria, is a gram-positive, catalase-negative coccus, found singly or in tetrads, with biochemical and growth characteristics of streptococci and enterococci. This microorganism, usually susceptible to penicillin, is often found in the environment and is infrequently associated with human/veterinary infections. We described a case of Holstein Friesian female calf, 150-day-old, affected by respiratory emergencies. Following the clinical signs, radiographic analysis and bacteriological/molecular examinations carried out on blood culture, a diagnosis of severe broncho-pulmonary disease associate with a multidrug-resistant A. viridans bacteremia was done. The present case highlights the invasive nature of a saprophytic bacterium showing a broad profile of antibiotic-resistance including β-lactams. Furthermore, this report confirms that the effectiveness of an antibiotic therapy is based primarily on a sure diagnosis including susceptibility testing.
Cite this paper: J. Guccione, S. Nizza, K. Mallardo, A. Cantiello, F. Fiorito, A. Loria and L. Martino, "Penicillin-Resistant Aerococcus viridans Bacteremia Associated with Bovine Severe Respiratory Syndrome," Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 3 No. 2, 2013, pp. 131-135. doi: 10.4236/ojvm.2013.32021.

[1]   G. Colman, “Aerococcus-Like Microorganisms Isolated from Human Infections,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, Vol. 20, No. 3, 1967, pp. 294-297. doi:10.1136/jcp.20.3.294

[2]   W. Kern and E. Vanek, “Aerococcus Bacteremia Associated with Granulocytopenia,” European Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Vol. 6, No. 6, 1987, pp. 670-673. doi:10.1007/BF02013068

[3]   A. Leite, A. Vinhas-Da-Silva, L. Felicio, A. C. Vilarinho and G. Ferreira, “Aerococcus viridans Urinary Tract Infection in a Pediatric Patient with Secondary Pseudohypoaldosteronism,” Revista Argentina de Microbiologia, Vol. 42, No. 4, 2010, pp. 269-270.

[4]   Y. Uh, J. S. Son, I. H. Jang, K. J. Yoon and S. I. Hong, “Penicillin-Resistant Aerococcus viridans Bacteremia Associated with Granulocytopenia,” Journal of Korean Medical Science, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2002, pp. 113-115.

[5]   A. Torrent, S. Deniz, A. Ruiz, P. Calabuig, J. Sicilia and J. Oros, “Esophageal Diverticulum Associated with Aerococcus viridans Infection in a Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta Caretta),” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, Vol. 38, No. 1, 2002, pp. 221-223.

[6]   L. A. Devriese, J. Hommez, H. Laevens, B. Pot, P. Vandamme and F. Haesebrouck, “Identification of Aesculin-Hydrolyzing Streptococci, Lactococci, Aerococci and Enterococci from Subclinical Intramammary Infections in Dairy Cows,” Veterinary Microbiology, Vol. 70, No. 1-2, 1999, pp. 87-94. doi:10.1016/S0378-1135(99)00124-8

[7]   V. Martin, A. I. Vela, M. Gilbert, J. Cebolla, J. Goyache, L. Dominguez and J. F. Fernandez-Garayzabal, “Characterization of A. viridans Isolates from Swine Clinical Specimens,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Vol. 45, No. 9, 2007, pp. 3053-3057. doi:10.1128/JCM.00156-07

[8]   T. Horaud and F. Delbos, “Streptococcaceae and Antibiotics,” Lett Infectiol, Vol. 19, 1987, pp. 595-604.

[9]   T. A. Thirunavukkarasu, B. V. Bhat and B. D. Bhatia, “Aerococcus viridans Endocarditis. Case Report,” Indian Pediatrics, Vol. 31, No. 5, 1994, pp. 599-601.

[10]   A. Gopalachar, R. L. Akins, W. R. Davis and A. A. Siddiqui, “Urinary Tract Infection Caused by Aerococcus viridans, a Case Report,” Medical Science Monitor, Vol. 10, No. 11, 2004, Article ID: CS73-5.

[11]   T. Spaková, J. Elecko, M. Vasil, J. Legáth, P. Pristas and P. Javorsky, “Limited Genetic Diversity of Aerococcus viridians Strains Isolated from Clinical and Subclinical Cases of Bovine Mastitis in Slovakia,” Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2012, pp. 329-335. doi:10.2478/v10181-012-0051-1

[12]   CLSI—National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, “Zone Diameter Interpretive Standards and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) Breakpoints for Veterinary Pathogens,” NCCLS Document 2002, M31-A2, NCCLS, Wayne.

[13]   CLSI—National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, “Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, Eighth Informational Supplement,” NCCLS Document 1998, M100-S8, NCCLS, Wayne.

[14]   CLSI—National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, “Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk and Dilution Susceptibility Test for Bacteria Isolated from Animals: Informational Supplement,” NCCLS Document 2004, M31-S1, NCCLS, Wayne.

[15]   K. A. Grant, J. H. Dickinson, M. D. Collins and R. G. Kroll, “Rapid Identification of Aerococcus viridans Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction and an Oligonucleotide Probe,” FEMS Microbiology Letters, Vol. 95, No. 1, 1992, pp. 63-69. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.1992.tb05343.x

[16]   A. I. Vela, N. Garcia, M. V. Latre, A. Casamayor, C. Sanchez-Porro, V. Briones, A. Ventosa, L. Dominguez and J. F. Fernandez-Garayzabal, “Aerococcus suis sp. nov., Isolated from Clinical Specimens from Swine,” International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Micryobiology, Vol. 57, No. 6, 2007, pp. 1291-1294. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.64537-0

[17]   R. E. O. William, A. Hirch and S. T. Cowan, “Aerococcus, a New Bacterial Genus,” Journal of General Microbiology, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1953, pp. 475-480. doi:10.1099/00221287-8-3-475

[18]   H. Swanson, E. Cutts and M. Lepow, “Penicillin-Resistant Aerococcus viridans Bacteremia in a Child Receiving Prophylaxis for Sickle-Cell Disease,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol. 22, No. 2, 1996, pp. 387-388. doi:10.1093/clinids/22.2.387

[19]   S. F. Peek, “Respiratory Emergency in Cattle,” Veterinary Clinics Food Animal, Vol. 21, No. 3, 2005, pp. 697-710. doi:10.1016/j.cvfa.2005.07.001

[20]   F. Dagnaes-Hansen, M. Kilian and K. Fuursted, “Septicaemia Associated with an Aerococcus viridians Infection in Immunodeficient Mice,” Laboratory Animals, Vol. 38, No. 3, 2004, pp. 321-325. doi:10.1258/002367704323133718