Back
 OJN  Vol.3 No.2 , June 2013
A description of resilience for Norwegian home-living chronically ill oldest older persons
Abstract: Background: Despite worsening health the chronically ill oldest older persons have expressed feelings of inner strength, which can be understood as resilience. The objective was to describe and compare the characteristics of resilience in two different age groups of chronically ill oldest older persons living at home and who needed help from home nursing care. Design: Cross-sectional design was used to describe and compare the resilience qualities between the two age groups. Methods: The inclusion criteria were 80 years or older, living at home with chronic disease, receiving help from home nursing care, and with the capacity to be interviewed. A sample of 120 oldest older women (n = 79) and men (n = 41) separated in two age groups, aged 80- 89 and 90+ years, participated in the study. Resilience characteristics were measured by Resilience Scale. Results: The whole group of oldest older people was vulnerable in relation to the characteristics of perseverance, self-reliance, and existential aloneness. Despite reduced physical health they reported a meaningful life, and equanimity. Even if there were no significant differences between the age groups among the oldest older persons in the characteristics of Resilience Scale (RS), in the characteristic of meaning there was a tendency of interaction between age and how much help from home nursing care the participants received. Conclusions: It is important to focus on the individual aging and the risk of developing illness and disabilities rather than focusing on chronologic age. Possessing meaning in life and equanimity may be strengths to meet challenges through illness and growing older.
Cite this paper: Moe, A. , Ekker, K. and Enmarker, I. (2013) A description of resilience for Norwegian home-living chronically ill oldest older persons. Open Journal of Nursing, 3, 241-248. doi: 10.4236/ojn.2013.32033.
References

[1]   The National Institute of Public Health (2010) The report of public health 2010. The state of health in Norway. The National Institut of Public Health, Oslo.

[2]   Viidik, A. (1998) The biological aging model. In: Kirk, H. and Schroll, M., Eds., Knowledge about Aging—the Way to Action, Munksgaard, København.

[3]   Nygren, B., Aléx, L., Jonsén, E., Gustafson, Y., Norberg, A. and Lundman, B. (2005) Resilience, sense of cohortence, purpose in life and self-transcendence in relation to perceived physical and mental health among the oldest old. Aging & Mental Health, 9, 354-362.

[4]   Wells, M. (2009) Resilience in rural community—Dwelling older adults. The Journal of Rural Health, 25, 415- 419. doi:10.1111/j.1748-0361.2009.00253.x

[5]   Moe, A., Hellzén, O., Ekker, K. and Enmarker, I. (2012) Inner strength in relation to perceived physical and mental health among the oldest old people with chronic illness. Mental Health, 17, 189-196.

[6]   Fulop, T., Larbi, A., Witkowski, J.M., McElhaney, J., Loeb, M., Mitnitskyi, A. and Pawelec, G. (2010) Aging, frailty and age-related diseases. Biogerontology, 11, 547- 563. doi:10.1007/s10522-010-9287-2

[7]   Bondevik, M. and Skogstad, A. (2000) Loneliness, religiousness, and purpose in life in the oldest old. Journal of Religious Gerontology, 11, 5-21. doi:10.1300/J078v11n01_03

[8]   Lamb, K.V., O’Brien, C. and Fenza, P.J. (2008) Elders at risk during disasters. Official Journal of the Home Healthcare Nurses Association, 26, 30-38. doi:10.1097/01.NHH.0000305552.32597.4d

[9]   Felten, B.S. and Hall, J.M. (2001) Conceptualizing resilience in women older than 85. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 27, 46-53.

[10]   Baltes, P.B. and Mayer, K.U. (1999) The Berlin aging study. Aging from 70 to 100. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

[11]   Erikson, E.H. and Erikson, J.M. (1987) The life cycle completed. W W Norton & Company, New York.

[12]   Baltes, P.B. and Smith, J. (2003) New frontier in the future of aging: From successful aging of the young old to the dilemmas of the fourth age. Gerontology, 49, 123-136. doi:10.1159/000067946

[13]   Berlau, D.J., Corrada, M.M. and Kawas, C. (2009) The prevalence of disability in the oldest-old is high and continues to increase with age: Findings from the 90+ study. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 24, 1217- 1225. doi:10.1002/gps.2248

[14]   Hedberg, P., Gustafson, Y. and Brulin, C. (2010) Purpose in life among men and women aged 85 year and older. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 70, 213-229. doi:10.2190/AG.70.3.c

[15]   Bury, M. and Holme, A. (1991) Life after ninety. Routledge, London.

[16]   MacDermott, A.F.N. (2002) Living with angina pectoris—A phenomenological study. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 1, 265-272. doi:10.1016/S1474-5151(02)00047-6

[17]   Wagnild, G. and Young, H.M. (1990) Resilience among older women. IMAGE: Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 22, 252-255. doi:10.1111/j.1547-5069.1990.tb00224.x

[18]   Dyer, J.G. and McGuinness, T.M. (1996) Resilience: Analysis of the concept. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 10, 276-282. doi:10.1016/S0883-9417(96)80036-7

[19]   Luthar, S.S., Cicchetti, D. and Becker, B. (2000) The construct of resilience: Implications for interventions and social policies. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 857-885. doi:10.1017/S0954579400004156

[20]   Wagnild, G. (2011) The resilience scale. User’s guide for the US English version of the resilience scale and the 14-item resilience scale. www.resiliencecenter.com

[21]   Wagnild, G. and Young, H.M. (1993) Development and psykometric evaluation of the resilience scale. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 1, 165-178.

[22]   Staudinger, U.M., Marsiske, M. and Baltes, P.B. (1993) Resilience and levels of reserve capasity in later adulthood: Perspectives from life-span theory. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 541-566. doi:10.1017/S0954579400006155

[23]   Rowe, J.W. and Kane, R.L. (2000) Successful aging and disease prevention. Advances in Renal Replacement Therapy, 7, 70-77.

[24]   Harris, P.B. (2008) Another wrinkle in the debate about successful aging: The undervalued concept of resilience and the dementia. International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 67, 43-61. doi:10.2190/AG.67.1.c

[25]   Wagnild, G.M. and Collins, J.A. (2009) Assessing resilience. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health, 47, 28-33. doi:10.3928/02793695-20091103-01

[26]   Felten, B.S. and Hall, J.M. (2001) Conceptualizing resilience in women older than 85. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 27, 46-53.

[27]   Waaktaar, T. and Torgersen, S. (2010) How resilient are resilience scales? The big five scales outperform resilience scales in predicting adjustments in adolescents. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 51, 157-163. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9450.2009.00757.x

[28]   Helsinki declaration. http://www.etikkom.no/Templates/Pages/FBIBArticle.aspx?id=845&epslanguage=no

[29]   Fried, L.P., Ferrucci, L., Darer, J., Williamson, J.D. and Anderson, G. (2004) Untangling the concepts of disability, frailty and comorbidity: Implications for improved targeting and care. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 59, 255-263. doi:10.1093/gerona/59.3.M255

[30]   Richardson, G.E. (2002) The metatheory of resilience and resiliency. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 307-321. doi:10.1002/jclp.10020

[31]   Flach, F.F. (1997) Resilience: How to bounce back when the going gets tough. Hatherleigh Press, New York.

[32]   Baltes, P.B. and Baltes, M.M. (1990) Psychological perspectives on successful aging: The model of selective optimization with compensation. In: Baltes P.B. and Baltes M.M., Eds., Successful Aging. Perspectives from the Behavioral Sciences, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511665684.003

[33]   Aléx, L. (2010) Resilience among very old men and women. Journal of Research in Nursing, 15, 419-431. doi:10.1177/1744987109358836

[34]   Moore, J. (2000) Placing home in context. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 20, 207-217. doi:10.1006/jevp.2000.0178

[35]   Hammer, R.M. (1999) The lived experience of being at home. A phenomenological investigation. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 25, 10-18.

[36]   Porter, E.J. (1994) Older widows’ experience of living alone at home. The Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 26, 19-24. doi:10.1111/j.1547-5069.1994.tb00289.x

[37]   Delmar, C., Bøje, T., Dylmer, D., Forup, L., Jakobsen, C. and Møller, M. (2005) Achieving harmony with oneself: Life with a chronic illness. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Science, 19, 204-212. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6712.2005.00334.x

[38]   Frankl, V. (1971) The will for meaning. Gyldendal, Oslo.

[39]   Bondevik, M. (1997) The life of the oldest old. Studies concerning loneliness, social contacts, activities of living, purpose in life and religiousness. Doctoral Thesis, University of Bergen, Bergen.

[40]   Erikson, E.H. (1981) The childhood and the society. Gyldendal Norsk Forlag, Oslo.

[41]   Hildon, Z., Smith, G., Netuveli, G. and Blane, D. (2008) Understanding adversity and resilience at older ages. Sociology of Health & Illness, 30, 726-740.

[42]   Jacelon, C.S. (1997) The trait and process of resilience. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25, 123-129. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2648.1997.1997025123.x

[43]   Vittinghoff, E. and McCulloch, C.E. (2007) Relaxing the Rule of ten events per variable in logistic and cox regression. American Journal of Epidemiology, 165, 710- 718. doi:10.1093/aje/kwk052

 
 
Top