Entangled States and Observables in Open Quantum Relativity

ABSTRACT

In the framework of the so called Open Quantum Relativity, we investigate a quantum universe, starting from a minimal set of variables defining the given quantum state. Entanglement between quantum states is the way to link different regions of the universe, even if (apparently) causally disconnected. As a consequence, the concept of causality results recovered and enlarged. Besides, the observed CDM model emerges from this picture, giving the possibility to realize a statistical and quantum interpretation of the cosmological constant. In particular, the novelty consists in the fact that the presently observed universe could be the result of several entanglement phenomena giving rise to a certain amount of entropy directly related to the value of cosmological constant.

In the framework of the so called Open Quantum Relativity, we investigate a quantum universe, starting from a minimal set of variables defining the given quantum state. Entanglement between quantum states is the way to link different regions of the universe, even if (apparently) causally disconnected. As a consequence, the concept of causality results recovered and enlarged. Besides, the observed CDM model emerges from this picture, giving the possibility to realize a statistical and quantum interpretation of the cosmological constant. In particular, the novelty consists in the fact that the presently observed universe could be the result of several entanglement phenomena giving rise to a certain amount of entropy directly related to the value of cosmological constant.

Cite this paper

nullS. Capozziello and G. Basini, "Entangled States and Observables in Open Quantum Relativity,"*Journal of Modern Physics*, Vol. 1 No. 5, 2010, pp. 295-299. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2010.15041.

nullS. Capozziello and G. Basini, "Entangled States and Observables in Open Quantum Relativity,"

References

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[2] J. J. Halliwell and J. B. Hartle, “Integration Contours for the No-Boundary Wave Function of the Universe,” Physical Review D, Vol. 41, No. 6, 1990, pp. 1815-1834.

[3] J. B. Hartle, “Prediction in Quantum Cosmology,” In: S. Carter and J. B. Hartle, Eds., Gravitation in Astrophysics, Cargese, 1986, pp. 392-360.

[4] G. Basini and S. Capozziello, “A Dynamical Unification Scheme from General Conservation Laws,” General Relativity and Gravitation, Vol. 35, No. 12, 2003, pp. 2217- 2248.

[5] G. Basini and S. Capozziello, “Quantum Mechanics, Relativity and Time,” General Relativity and Gravitation, Vol. 37, No. 1, 2005, pp. 115-165.

[6] G. Basini and S. Capozziello, “The Spacetime Structure of Open Quantum Relativity,” Progress in Physics, Vol. 3, 2007, pp. 36-41.

[7] G. Basini and S. Capozziello, “A General Covariant Symplectic Structure from Conservation Laws,” Modern Physics Letters A, Vol. 20, No. 4, 2005, pp. 251-262.

[8] G. Basini and S. Capozziello, “A General Covariant Symplectic Structure for Gravitational, Electromagnetic and Dirac Fields,” International Journal of Modern Physics D, Vol. 15, No. 4, 2006, pp. 583-602.

[9] G. Basini and S. Capozziello, “Conservation Laws, Causality, Entanglement and Topology Changes. A Gate for a Time Machine,” European Physical Journal, Vol. 63, 2003, pp. 166-172.

[10] G. Basini, S. Capozziello and G. Longo, “The General Conservation Principle. Absolute Validity of Conservation Laws and Their Role as Source of Entanglement, Topology Changes, and Generation of Masses,” Physical Letters A, Vol. 311, No. 6, 2003, pp. 465-473.

[11] G. Basini, S. Capozziello and G. Longo, “Gamma Ray Bursts as a Signature for Entangled Gravitational Systems,” Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 20, No. 4, 2004, pp. 457-466.

[12] G. Basini, F. Bongiorno and S. Capozziello, “Singularity Free Solutions from Scalar-Tensor Gravity Compared with Recent Cosmological Observations,” International Journal of Modern Physics D, Vol. 13, No. 4, 2004, pp. 717-737.

[13] G. Basini and S. Capozziello, “Multi-Spaces and Many Worlds from Conservation Laws,” Progress in Physics, Vol. 4, 2006, pp. 65-72.

[14] P. J. E. Peebles, “Principles of Physical Cosmology,” Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1993.

[15] R. M. Wald, “General Relativity,” The University of Chicago, Chicago, 1984.

[16] C. W. Misner, K. S. Thorne and J. A. Wheeler, “Gravitation,” Freeman and Company, New York, 1973.

[17] A. G. Riess, et al., “Type Ia Supernova Discoveries at z > 1 from the Hubble Space Telescope: Evidence for Past Deceleration and Constraints on Dark Energy Evolution,” Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 607, No. 2, 2004, pp. 665- 687.

[18] R. Rebolo, et al., “Cosmological parameter estimation using Very Small Array data out to l = 1500,” MNRAS, Vol. 353, No. 3, 2004, pp. 747-759.

[19] M. A. Nielsen and I. L. Chuang, “Quantum Computation and Quantum Information,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2002.

[20] S. Weinberg, “The Cosmological Constant Problem,” Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 61, No. 1, 1989, pp. 1-23.

[1] J. B. Hartle, “The Quantum Structure of Space and Time,” Proceedings of the 23rd Solvay Conference, Singapore, 2007, pp. 21-43.

[2] J. J. Halliwell and J. B. Hartle, “Integration Contours for the No-Boundary Wave Function of the Universe,” Physical Review D, Vol. 41, No. 6, 1990, pp. 1815-1834.

[3] J. B. Hartle, “Prediction in Quantum Cosmology,” In: S. Carter and J. B. Hartle, Eds., Gravitation in Astrophysics, Cargese, 1986, pp. 392-360.

[4] G. Basini and S. Capozziello, “A Dynamical Unification Scheme from General Conservation Laws,” General Relativity and Gravitation, Vol. 35, No. 12, 2003, pp. 2217- 2248.

[5] G. Basini and S. Capozziello, “Quantum Mechanics, Relativity and Time,” General Relativity and Gravitation, Vol. 37, No. 1, 2005, pp. 115-165.

[6] G. Basini and S. Capozziello, “The Spacetime Structure of Open Quantum Relativity,” Progress in Physics, Vol. 3, 2007, pp. 36-41.

[7] G. Basini and S. Capozziello, “A General Covariant Symplectic Structure from Conservation Laws,” Modern Physics Letters A, Vol. 20, No. 4, 2005, pp. 251-262.

[8] G. Basini and S. Capozziello, “A General Covariant Symplectic Structure for Gravitational, Electromagnetic and Dirac Fields,” International Journal of Modern Physics D, Vol. 15, No. 4, 2006, pp. 583-602.

[9] G. Basini and S. Capozziello, “Conservation Laws, Causality, Entanglement and Topology Changes. A Gate for a Time Machine,” European Physical Journal, Vol. 63, 2003, pp. 166-172.

[10] G. Basini, S. Capozziello and G. Longo, “The General Conservation Principle. Absolute Validity of Conservation Laws and Their Role as Source of Entanglement, Topology Changes, and Generation of Masses,” Physical Letters A, Vol. 311, No. 6, 2003, pp. 465-473.

[11] G. Basini, S. Capozziello and G. Longo, “Gamma Ray Bursts as a Signature for Entangled Gravitational Systems,” Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 20, No. 4, 2004, pp. 457-466.

[12] G. Basini, F. Bongiorno and S. Capozziello, “Singularity Free Solutions from Scalar-Tensor Gravity Compared with Recent Cosmological Observations,” International Journal of Modern Physics D, Vol. 13, No. 4, 2004, pp. 717-737.

[13] G. Basini and S. Capozziello, “Multi-Spaces and Many Worlds from Conservation Laws,” Progress in Physics, Vol. 4, 2006, pp. 65-72.

[14] P. J. E. Peebles, “Principles of Physical Cosmology,” Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1993.

[15] R. M. Wald, “General Relativity,” The University of Chicago, Chicago, 1984.

[16] C. W. Misner, K. S. Thorne and J. A. Wheeler, “Gravitation,” Freeman and Company, New York, 1973.

[17] A. G. Riess, et al., “Type Ia Supernova Discoveries at z > 1 from the Hubble Space Telescope: Evidence for Past Deceleration and Constraints on Dark Energy Evolution,” Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 607, No. 2, 2004, pp. 665- 687.

[18] R. Rebolo, et al., “Cosmological parameter estimation using Very Small Array data out to l = 1500,” MNRAS, Vol. 353, No. 3, 2004, pp. 747-759.

[19] M. A. Nielsen and I. L. Chuang, “Quantum Computation and Quantum Information,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2002.

[20] S. Weinberg, “The Cosmological Constant Problem,” Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 61, No. 1, 1989, pp. 1-23.