An anti-icing surface has been designed and prepared with an aluminum panel by creating an artificial lotus leaf which is highly hydrophobic. The hydrophobicity of a solid surface can be generated by decreasing its surface tension and increasing the roughness of the surface. On a highly hydrophobic surface, water has a high contact angle and it can easily rolls off, carrying surface dirt and debris with it. Super-cooled water or freezing rain can also run off this highly hydrophobic surface instead of forming ice on the surface, due to the reduction of the liquid-solid adhesion. This property can also help a surface to get rid of the ice after the water becomes frozen. In this study, a Cassie-Baxter rough surface was modeled, and an aluminum panel was physically and chemically modified based on the modeled structure. Good agreement was found between predicted values and experimental results for the contact and roll-off angles of water. Most importantly, by creating this highly hydrophobic aluminum rough surface, the anti-icing and de-icing properties of the modified surface were drastically improved compared to the control aluminum surface, and the cost will be reduced.
Cite this paper
Y. Wang, D. Orol, J. Owens, K. Simpson and H. Lee, "Design and Development of Anti-Icing Aluminum Surface," Materials Sciences and Applications, Vol. 4 No. 6, 2013, pp. 347-356. doi: 10.4236/msa.2013.46045.
 C. Laforte and A. Beisswenger, “Icephobic Material Centrifuge Adhesion Test,” Proceedings of the International Workshop on Atmospheric Icing of Structures (IWAIS XI), Montréal, 16 June 2005, pp. 1-5.
 F. T. Lynch and A. Khodadoust, “Effects of Ice Accretions on aircraft Aerodynamics,” Progress in Aerospace Sciences, Vol. 37, 2001, pp. 669-767.
 B. C. Bernstein, T. A. Omeron, M. K. Politovich and F. McDonough, “Surface Weather Features Associated with Freezing Precipitation and Severe In-Flight Aircraft Icing,” Atmospheric Research, Vol. 46, No. 1-2, 1998, pp. 57-73. doi:10.1016/S0169-8095(97)00051-3
 E. Huttunen-Saarivirta, V.-T. Kuokkala, J. Kokkonen and H. Paajanen, “Corrosion Effects of Runway De-Icing Chemicals on Aircraft Alloys and Coatings,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 126, No. 1-2, 2011, pp. 138-151. doi:10.1016/j.matchemphys.2010.11.049
 L. Fay and X. Shi, “Environmental Impacts of Chemicals for Snow and Ice Control: State of the Knowledge,” Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, Vol. 223, No. 5, 2012, pp. 2751-2770. doi:10.1007/s11270-011-1064-6
 D. E. A. C. Ancilla, A. N. K. E. H. Oltkamp, L. U. C. A. M. Atassa and X. I. F. Ang, “Isolation and Characterization of Microtox-Active Components from Aircraft DeIcing/Anti-Icing Fluids,” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 16, No. 3, 1997, pp. 430-434.
 R. A. Kent, D. Andersen, P. Caux and S. Teed, “Canadian Water Quality Guidelines for Glycols: An Ecotoxicological Review of Glycols and Associated Aircraft Anti-Icing and Deicing Fluids,” Environmental Toxicology, Vol. 14, No. 5, 1999, pp. 481-522.
 A. Alizadeh, M. Yamada, R. Li, W. Shang, S. Otta, S. Zhong, L. Ge, A. Dhinojwala, K. R. Conway, V. Bahadur, A. J. Vinciquerra, B. Stephens and M. L. Blohm, “Dynamics of Ice Nucleation on Water Repellent Surfaces,” Langmuir, Vol. 28, No. 6, 2012, pp. 3180-3186.
 L. Mishchenko, B. Hatton, V. Bahadur, J. A. Taylor, T. Krupenkin and J. Aizenberg, “Design of Ice-Free Nanostructured Impacting Water Droplets,” ACS NANO, Vol. 4, No. 12, 2010, pp. 7699-7707. doi:10.1021/nn102557p
 L. Cao, A. K. Jones, V. K. Sikka, J. Wu and D. Gao, “Anti-Icing Superhydrophobic Coatings,” Langmuir, Vol. 25, No. 21, 2009, pp. 12444-12448.
 S. V. Chuppina, “Anti-Icing Gradient Organosilicate Coatings,” Glass Physics and Chemistry, Vol. 33, No. 5, 2007, pp. 502-509. doi:10.1134/S1087659607050136
 H. J. Lee and J. R. Owens, “Motion of Liquid Droplets on a Superhydrophobic Oleophobic Surface,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 46, No. 1, 2010, pp. 69-76.
 H. J. Lee and J. R. Owens, “Design of Superhydrophobic Ultraoleophobic NyCo,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 45, No. 12, 2010, pp. 3247–3253.
 H. J. Lee, “Design and DEvelopment of Anti-Icing Textile Surfaces,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 47, No. 13, 2012, pp. 5114-5120.
 H. J. Lee and S. Michielsen, “Preparation of a Superhydrophobic Rough Surface,” Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, Vol. 45, No. 3, 2006, pp. 253-261. doi:10.1002/polb.21036
 H. J. Lee, “Design of Artificial Lotus Leaves Using Nonwoven Fabric,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 44, No. 17, 2009, pp. 4645-4652.
 P. Guo, Y. Zheng, M. Wen, C. Song, Y. Lin and L. Jiang, “Icephobic/Anti-Icing Properties of Micro/Nanostructured Surfaces,” Advanced Materials, Vol. 24, No. 19, 2012, pp. 2642-2648. doi:10.1002/adma.201104412
 T. Young, “An Essay on the Cohesion of Fluid,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Vol. 95, No. 1805, 1805, pp. 65-87.
 R. Tadmor, “Line Energy and the Relation between Advancing, Receding, and Young Contact Angles,” Langmuir, Vol. 20, No. 18, 2004, pp. 7659-7664.
 R. N. Wenzel, “Resistance of Solid Surfaces to Wetting by Water,” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry, Vol. 28, No. 8, 1936, pp. 988-994. doi:10.1021/ie50320a024
 G. McHale, “Cassie and Wenzel: Were They Really So Wrong?” Langmuir, Vol. 23, No. 15, 2007, pp. 8200-8205. doi:10.1021/la7011167
 A. B. D. Cassie and S. Baxter, “Wettability of Porous Surfaces,” Transactions of the Faraday Society, Vol. 5, No. 5, 1944, pp. 546-551. doi:10.1039/tf9444000546
 A. Marmur, “Wetting on Hydrophobic Rough Surfaces: To Be Heterogeneous or Not To Be?” Langmuir, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2003, pp. 8343-8348. doi:10.1021/la0344682
 R. Saraf, H. J. Lee, S. Michielsen, J. Owens, C. Willis, C. Stone and E. Wilusz, “Comparison of Three Methods for Generating Superhydrophobic, Superoleophobic Nylon Nonwoven Surfaces,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 46, No. 17, 2011, pp. 5751-5760.
 L. Barbieri, E. Wagner and P. Hoffmann, “Water Wetting Transition Parameters of Perfluorinated Substrates with Periodically Distributed Flat-Top Microscale Obstacles,” Langmuir, Vol. 23, No. 4, 2007, pp. 1723-1734.
 C. G. L. Furmidge, “Studies at Phase Interfaces,” Journal of Colloid Science, Vol. 17, No. 4, 1962, pp. 309-324,
 S. A. Kulinich and M. Farzaneh, “Ice Adhesion on SuperHydrophobic Surfaces,” Applied Surface Science, Vol. 255, No. 18, 2009, pp. 8153-8157.
 D. K. Sarkar and M. Farzaneh, “Superhydrophobic Coatings with Reduced Ice Adhesion,” Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, Vol. 23, No. 9, 2009, pp. 1215-1237. doi:10.1163/156856109X433964
 W. D. Bascom, R. L. Cottington and C. R. Singleterry, “Ice Adhesion to Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Surfaces,” The Journal of Adhesion, Vol. 1, No. 1-4, 1969, pp. 246-263. doi:10.1080/00218466908072188
 A. Dotan, H. Dodiuk, C. Laforte and S. Kenig, “The Relationship between Water Wetting and Ice Adhesion,” Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, Vol. 23, No. 15, 2009, pp. 1907-1915.
 M. Zou, S. Beckford, R. Wei, C. Ellis, G. Hatton and M. A. Miller, “Effects of Surface Roughness and Energy on Ice Adhesion Strength,” Applied Surface Science, Vol. 257, No. 8, 2011, pp. 3786-3792.