AJPS  Vol.4 No.5 , May 2013
Effect of Water Stress on the Growth and Development of Amaranthus spinosus, Leptochloa chinensis, and Rice
Abstract: Drought is the most important abiotic constraint in rainfed rice systems. In these systems, Amaranthus spinosus and Leptochloa chinensis are the dominant weed species, which may reduce the available water to rice by competition and cause water stress in the crop. Two studies were conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the growth response of A. spinosus and rice and L. chinensis and rice to water stress. The water stress treatments were 12.5%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of field capacity and the plants were grown until weed maturity (i.e., 63 days from seeding). Rice plants did not survive at 12.5% and 25% of field capacity, but both weed species survived in all the treatments. Both weed species produced a significant number of tillers/branches and leaves even at the lowest soil water content. The maximum amount of total shoot biomass produced by weed plants was 2.5 to 3 times more than that of rice plants. The soil water content to achieve 50% of the maximum aboveground biomass was 47%-50% of field capacity for rice, whereas it was 39% and 31% of field capacity for A. spinosus and L. chinensis, respectively. A. spinosus plants responded to increasing water stress with increased leaf weight ratio, whereas the leaf weight ratio of L. chinensis decreased with increases in water stress. The ability of A. spinosus and L. chinensis to produce shoot biomass under water-stressed conditions suggests that weed management strategies are needed that can minimize weed survival in water-limited environments. These strategies may include the use of weed-competitive and drought-tolerant cultivars, high seeding rates, and optimum timing of fertilizers.
Cite this paper: B. Chauhan and S. Abugho, "Effect of Water Stress on the Growth and Development of Amaranthus spinosus, Leptochloa chinensis, and Rice," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 5, 2013, pp. 989-998. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2013.45122.

[1]   R. E. Huke and E. H. Huke, “Rice Area by Type of Culture: South, Southeast, and East Asia,” International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, 1997.

[2]   A. Kumar, S. Verulkar, S. Dixit, B. Chauhan, J. Bernier, R. Venuprasad, D. Zhao and M. N. Shrivastava, “Yield and Yield-Attributing Traits of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) under Lowland Drought and Suitability of Early Vigor as a Selection Criterion,” Field Crops Research, Vol. 114, No. 1, 2009, pp. 99-107. doi:10.1016/j.fcr.2009.07.010

[3]   S. Pandey, H. Bhandari and B. Hardy, “Economic Costs of Drought and Rice Farmers’ Coping Mechanisms: A Cross-Country Comparative Analysis,” International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, 2007, p. 203.

[4]   T. P. Tuong and B. A. M. Bouman, “Rice Production in Water-Scarce Environments,” In: J. W. Kijne, R. Barker and D. Molden, Eds., Water Productivity in Agriculture: Limits and Opportunities for Improvements, CABI Publishing, 2003, pp. 53-67. doi:10.1079/9780851996691.0053

[5]   B. S. Chauhan, “Growth Response of Itchgrass (Rottboellia cochinchinensis) to Water Stress,” Weed Science, Vol. 61, No. 1, 2013, pp. 98-103. doi:10.1614/WS-D-12-00060.1

[6]   T. M. Webster and T. L. Grey, “Growth and Reproduction of Benghal Dayflower (Commelina benghalensis) in Response to Drought Stress,” Weed Science, Vol. 56, No. 4, 2008, pp. 561-566. doi:10.1614/WS-07-186.1

[7]   B. S. Chauhan, “Weed Ecology and Weed Management Strategies for Dry-Seeded Rice in Asia,” Weed Technology, Vol. 26, No. 1, 2012, pp. 1-13. doi:10.1614/WT-D-11-00105.1

[8]   D. T. Patterson, “Weeds in a Changing Climate,” Weed Science, Vol. 43, No. 4, 1995, pp. 685-701.

[9]   B. S. Chauhan and D. E. Johnson, “Germination Ecology of Chinese Sprangletop (Leptochloa chinensis) in the Philippines,” Weed Science, Vol. 56, No. 6, 2008, pp. 820-825. doi:10.1614/WS-08-070.1

[10]   B. S. Chauhan and D. E. Johnson, “Germination Ecology of Spiny (Amaranthus spinosus) and Slender Amaranth (A. viridis): Troublesome Weeds of Direct Seeded Rice,” Weed Science, Vol. 57, No. 4, 2009, pp. 379-385. doi:10.1614/WS-08-179.1

[11]   B. S. Chauhan and D. E. Johnson, “Row Spacing and Weed Control Timing Affect Yield of Aerobic Rice,” Field Crops Research, Vol. 121, No. 2, 2011, pp. 226-231. doi:10.1016/j.fcr.2010.12.008

[12]   B. S. Chauhan and J. Opeña, “Effect of Tillage Systems and Herbicides on Weed Emergence, Weed Growth, and Grain Yield in Dry-Seeded Rice Systems,” Field Crops Research, Vol. 137, 2012, pp. 56-69. doi:10.1016/j.fcr.2012.08.016

[13]   R. T. Cruz, J. C. O’Toole and K. Moody, “Leaf Water Potential of Weeds and Rice (Oryza sativa),” Weed Science, Vol. 31, No. 3, 1983, pp. 410-414.

[14]   A. N. Rao, D. E. Johnson, B. Sivaprasad, J. K. Ladha and A. M. Mortimer, “Weed Management in Direct-Seeded Rice,” Advances in Agronomy, Vol. 93, 2007, pp. 153- 255. doi:10.1016/S0065-2113(06)93004-1

[15]   M. Azmi, D. V. Chin, P. Vongsaroj and D. E. Johnson, “Emerging Issues in Weed Management of Direct-Seeded Rice in Malaysia, Vietnam, and Thailand,” Rice Is Life: Scientific Perspectives for the 21st Century, International Rice Research Institute and Tsukuba, Los Baños, Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, Japan, 2005, pp. 196-198.

[16]   B. Marambe, “Emerging Weed Problems in Wet-Seeded Rice Due to Herbicide Use in Sri Lanka,” Abstracts: International Rice Congress, Beijing, 14-19 October 2002, p. 430.

[17]   J. R. Ehleringer, T. E. Cerling and B. R. Helliker, “C4 Photosynthesis, Atmospheric CO2 and Climate,” Oecologia, Vol. 112, No. 3, 1997, pp. 285-299. doi:10.1007/s004420050311

[18]   J. Fuhrer, “Agroecosystem Reponses to Combinations of Elevated CO2, Ozone, and Global Climate Change,” Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, Vol. 97, No. 1-3, 2003, pp. 1-20. doi:10.1016/S0167-8809(03)00125-7

[19]   X. Yin and P. C. Struik, “Applying Modelling Experiences from the Past to Shape Crop Systems Biology: The Need to Converge Crop Physiology and Functional Genomics,” New Phytologist, Vol. 179, No. 3, 2008, pp. 629-642. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02424.x

[20]   B. S. Chauhan and D. E. Johnson, “Growth and Reproduction of Junglerice (Echinochloa colona) in Response to Water-Stress,” Weed Science, Vol. 58, No. 2, 2010, pp. 132-135. doi:10.1614/WS-D-09-00016.1

[21]   K. J. Steadman, A. J. Ellery, R. Chapman, A. Moore and N. C. Turner, “Maturation Temperature and Rainfall Influence Seed Dormancy Characteristics of Annual Ryegrass (Lolium rigidum),” Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. 55, No. 10, 2004, pp. 1047-1057. doi:10.1071/AR04083

[22]   GenStat 8.0, “GenStat Release 8 Reference Manual,” VSN International, Oxford, 2005, p. 343.

[23]   J. D. Janiya and K. Moody, “Effect of Water Deficit on Rice-Weed Competition under Greenhouse Conditions,” Journal of Plant Protection in the Tropics, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1991, pp. 25-35.

[24]   R. L. Zimdahl, K. Moody and R. C. Chavez, “The Influence of Soil Moisture on Growth of Some Rice (Oryza sativa) Weeds,” Philippines Journal of Weed Science, Vol. 14, No. 1, 1987, pp. 19-25.

[25]   K. Moody and J. D. Janiya, “Effect of Weather on Weeds and Their Control with Herbicides,” In: Weather and Rice, International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, 1987, pp. 165-174.

[26]   B. S. Chauhan and S. B. Abugho, “Phenotypic Plasticity of Spiny Amaranth (Amaranthus spinosus) and Longfruited Primrose-Willow (Ludwigia octovalvis) in Response to Rice Interference,” Weed Science, Vol. 60, No. 3, 2012, pp. 411-415. doi:10.1614/WS-D-11-00158.1

[27]   B. S. Chauhan and D. E. Johnson, “Phenotypic Plasticity of Chinese Sprangletop (Leptochloa chinensis) in Competition with Seeded Rice,” Weed Technology, Vol. 25, No. 4, 2011, pp. 652-658. doi:10.1614/WT-D-09-00076.1

[28]   G. E. Edwards and D. A. Walker, “C3, C4: Mechanisms, and Cellular and Environmental Regulation of Photosynthesis,” Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, 1983.

[29]   M. V. Lara and C. S. Andrea, “C4 Plants Adaptation to High Levels of CO2 and to Drought Environments,” In: A. Shanker, Ed., Abiotic Stress in Plants-Mechanisms and Adaptations, InTech, 2011, pp. 415-428.

[30]   M. Ozturk, H. Rehder and H. Zeigler, “Biomass Production of C3 and C4 Plants Species in Pure and Mixed Culture with Different Water Supply,” Oecologia, Vol. 50, No. 1, 1981, pp. 73-81. doi:10.1007/BF00378796

[31]   P. J. Steptoe, W. K. Vencill and T. L. Grey, “Influence of Moisture Stress on Herbicidal Control of an Invasive Weed, Benghal Dayflower (Commelina benghalensis),” Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, Vol. 20, 2006, pp. 907-914.

[32]   D. T. Patterson, “Effects of Environmental Stress on Weed/Crop Interactions,” Weed Science, Vol. 43, No. 3, 1995, pp. 483-490.