US Fish and Wildlife Species Reports (2013) Summary of listed species listed populations and recovery plans. Environmental conservation online system. http://ecos.fws.gov/tess_public/pub/Boxscore.do
 US Environmental Protection Agency (2000) Stressor identification guidance document. US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water and Office of Research and Development, Washington DC, EPA-822-B00-025.
 Suter II, G.W., Norton, S.B. and Cormier, S.M. (2002) A methodology for inferring the causes of observed impairments in aquatic ecosystems. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 21, 1101-1111. doi:10.1002/etc.5620210602
 Suter II, G.W., Norton, S.B. and Cormier, S.M. (2010) The science and philosophy of a method for assessing environmental causes. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 16, 19-34. doi:10.1080/10807030903459254
 Lawler, J.J., Campbell, S.P., Guerry, A.D., Kolozsvary, M.B., O’Connor, R.J. and Seward, L.C.N. (2002) The scope and treatment of threats in endangered species recovery plans. Ecological Applications 12, 663-667. doi:10.1890/1051-0761(2002)012[0663:TSATOT]2.0.CO;2
 Davidson, C., Shaffer, H.B. and Jennings, M.R. (2001) Declines of the California red-legged frog: Climate, UVB, habitat, and pesticide hypotheses. Ecological Applications, 11, 464-479. doi:10.1890/1051-0761(2001)011[0464:DOTCRL]2.0.CO;2
 Davidson, C., Shaffer, H.B. and Jennings, M.R. (2002) Spatial tests of the pesticide drift, habitat destruction, UVB, and climate-change hypotheses for California amphibian declines. Conservation Biology, 16, 1588-1601. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.2002.01030.x
 Kiesecker, J.M. and Blaustein, A.R. (1998) Effects of introduced bullfrogs and smallmouth bass on microhabitat use, growth and survival of native red-legged frogs (Rana aurora). Conservation Biology, 12, 776-787. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1998.97125.x
 Lawler, S.P., Dritz, D., Strange, T. and Holyoak, M. (1999) Effects of introduced mosquitofish and bullfrogs on the threatened California red-legged frog. Conservation Biology, 13, 613-622. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1999.98075.x
 Doubledee, R.A., Muller, E.B. and Nisbet, R.M. (2003) Bullfrogs, disturbance regimes, and the persistence of California red-legged frogs. Journal of Wildlife Management, 67, 424-438. doi:10.2307/3802783
 McConnell, L.L., LeNoir, J.S., Datta, S. and Seiber, J.N. (1998) Wet deposition of current-use pesticides in the Sierra Nevada mountain range, California, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 17, 1980-1916. doi:10.1002/etc.5620171003
 LeNoir, J.S., McConnell, L.L., Fellers, G.M. and Cahill, T.M. (1999) Summertime transport of current use pesticides from California’s Central Valley to the Sierra Nevada mountain range. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 18, 2715-2722. doi:10.1002/etc.5620181210
 Sparling, D.W., Fellers, G.M. and McConnell, L.L. (2001) Pesticides and amphibian population declines in California, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 20, 1591-1595. doi:10.1002/etc.5620200725
 Sparling, D.W. and Fellers, G.M. (2009) Toxicity of two insecticides to California, USA, anurans and its relevance to declining amphibian populations. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 28, 1696-1703. doi:10.1897/08-336.1
 Bradford, D.F., Stanley, K., McConnell, L.L., TallentHalsell, N.G., Nash, M.S. and Simonich, S.M. (2010) Spatial patterns of atmospherically deposited organic contaminants at high elevation in the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 29, 1056-1066.
 Witte, C.L., Sredl, M.J., Kane, A.S. and Hungerford, LL. (2007) Epidemiologic analysis of factors associated with local disappearance of native ranid frogs in Arizona. Conservation Biology, 22, 375-383. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2007.00878.x
 Davidson, C., Benard, M.F., Shafer, H.B., Parker, J.M., O’Leary, C., Conlon, J.M. and Rollins-Smith, L.A. (2007) Effects of chytrid and carbaryl exposure on survival, growth and skin peptide defenses in foothill yellowlegged frogs. Environmental Science and Technology, 41, 1771-1776. doi:10.1021/es0611947
 Bancroft, B.A., Baker, N.J. and Blaustein, A.R. (2008) A meta-analysis of the effects of ultraviolet B radiation and its synergistic interactions with pH, contaminants, and disease on amphibian survival. Conservation Biology, 22, 987-996. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.00966.x
 USDI (2003) Biological Opinion and letter of concurrence for effects to bald eagles, marbled murrelets, northern spotted owls, bull trout, and designated critical habitat for marbled murrelets and northern spotted owls from Olympic National Forest program of activities for August 5, 2003, to December 31, 2008. USDI Fish and Wildlife Service, Lacey, Washington.
 US FWS (2007) Biological opinion on the Ohio Department of Transportation’s statewide transportation program for the federally-listed endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis). US Fish and Wildlife Service, Ohio Ecological Services Field Office, Reynoldsburg.
 Wickwire, W.T., Menzie, C.A., Burmistrov, D. and Hope, B.K. (2004) Incorporating spatial data into ecological risk assessments: The spatially explicit exposure model (SEEM) for ARAMS. In: Kapustka, L.A., Galbraith, H., Luxon, M. and Biddinger, G.R., Eds., Landscape Ecology and Wildlife Habitat Evaluation: Critical Information for Ecological Risk Assessment, Land-Use Management Activities, and Biodiversity Enhancement Practices. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, 297. doi:10.1520/STP11955S
 Wickwire, W.T. and Menzie, C.A. (2003) New approaches in ecological risk assessment: Expanding scales, increaseing realism, and enhancing causal analysis. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 9, 1411-1414. doi:10.1080/10807030390250903
 Von Stackelberg, K., Wickwire, W.T. and Burmistrov, D. (2005) Spatially-explicit exposure modeling tools for use in human health and ecological risk assessment: SEEM and FISHRAND-Migration. In: Aral, M.M., Brebbia, C.A., Maslia, M.L. and Sinks, T., Eds., Environmental Exposure and Health. WIT Press, Southampton, 279.
 Freshman, J.S. and Menzie, C.A. (1996) Two wildlife exposure models to assess impacts at the individual and population levels and the efficacy of remedial actions. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 2, 481-496. doi:10.1080/10807039609383628
 Johnson, M.S., Wickwire, W.T., Quinn, M.J., Ziolkowski, D.J., Burmistrov, D., Menzie, C.A., Geraghty, C., Minnich, M. and Parsons, P.J. (2007) Are songbirds at risk from lead at small arms ranges? An application of the Spatially Explicit Exposure Model (SEEM). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 26, 2215-2225. doi:10.1897/07-068R.1
 McGowan, C.P. and Ryan, M.R. (2009) A quantitative framework to evaluate incidental take and endangered species viability. Biological Conservation, 142, 31283136. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2009.08.012